General overview of the research project
Much media attention has focused on how adolescents today are more narcissistic compared to previous generations. This is often attributed to the considerable amount of time that young people spend on the Internet, especially on social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook.
In this research, we will examine the levelsof narcissism, the relationship between narcissism and Facebook use, and whether this relationship is different for adolescents with low and high self-esteem.
The total length should be 2,500 words+/-10%.The reference listis not part of the word count (in-text references are counted).
Overall, a suggested breakdown in words as is follows.
Abstract -150 words
Introduction -750-800 words
Method and Results -750-800 words
Discussion -750-800 words
Assignments submitted via Turnitinwill be subjected to a plagiarism check.
The submission must be in APA Format.
Step by step instructions on how to write the research report.
Introduction(should be about 750-800 words). A suggested framework is as follows:
Review the literature on the measurement andlevels of narcissism
Review the literature on narcissism and SNS use
Review the literature on narcissism, self-esteem and SNS use
End the Introduction with the aim/s of the study, one (1) hypothesis for Narcissism and SNS-related variables, and one (1) research questionexploring narcissism, SNS use and self-esteem.
Make sure that you can answer the research question and that your hypothesis is testable by the analyses that will be conducted. DO NOT write the hypothesisin dot point form or integrate it into the body of the introduction.
You have the option of including more of the other demographic,personality and mental health variablesbut only if you can fit this within the word limit.
**The review of the literature is not expected to be exhaustive (you only have 750-800 words for the introduction), however, it should provide the basis for testing your hypothesis and the research question. Write the introduction as if you were the researcher who designed the study. Think carefully about your key terms and stay focused. It is easy to get distracted by so much information.
You are expected to describe:
Where participants were recruited from (check the procedure section in this handout)
Number of males and females, their mean age and standard deviation, and range of ages.
You can use the Frequencies and Descriptives in SPSS with these variables to derive this information.
For this research, we used the following scales:
Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children (NPQC; Ang&Yusof, 2006).
This measure consists of 18 items that describe narcissism-related cognitions and behaviours.
Respondents indicate how often they perform or experience each one on a 5-point scale: 1 (Not at all like me) to 5 (Completely like me).
Higher scores indicate more problematic use.
Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965)
This is a 10-item scale measuring how one feels about oneself.
Participants are asked to indicate their responses on a 4-point scale with responses ranging from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 4 (Strongly agree).
Higher scores on this measure correspond to higher levels of self-esteem.
Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS; Lovibond&Lovibond, 1995)
This is a 21-item scale which measures depression, anxiety, and stress related distress.
Participants rate each item as it describes their experiences in the past week: 0 (Did not apply to me at all) to 3 (Applied to me very much, most of the time).
Higher scores indicate more/more frequent negative experiences.
Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985)
This a 5-item measure of general satisfaction with life.
Reponses are made on a 7-point scale: 1 (Strongly disagree) to 7 (Strongly agree).
Higher scores indicate higher satisfaction with life.
The Australian Personality Inventory (API; Murray et al., 2009)
This inventory was used to measure the personality traits extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness.
For each of these traits, participants were asked to respond to 10-items using a 5-point scale ranging from 1(Very inaccurate of me) to 5 (Very accurate of me) the extent to which each item was true of them.
Higher scores correspond to higher levels of that particular trait.
Data on age, sex, and SNS behaviours (e.g., type of SNS, time spent on Facebook, number of friends on Facebook, number of photosposted on Facebook) were also collected.
This section is where you describe how the study was carried out.
Approval for the current research was obtained from the university’s Human Research Ethics Committee, as well as the Department of Education.
Participants were recruited via letters sent to school principals of selected VictorianSchools.
Information letters and consent forms for parents were thensent home with the students and the completed consent forms were returned totheir classroom teachers.
A suitable date/time to collect the data was prearrangedwith each participating school.
On the day of data collection, those students forwhom parental permission had been obtained were briefed regarding the aims andobjectives of the project and the voluntary nature of their contribution.
In addition,individual information and consent forms were provided to each studentparticipant.
Results and How to Analyse the Data
This section is where you present in one place all the evidence relevant to your research questions and hypotheses. It is best to present results in the same order as specified in the Introduction. Please remember to use the appropriate conventions of reporting statistical data.
It is expected that you will include:
Level of narcissism in the sample
Table of Means and Standard Deviations for all relevant variables
Table of Correlations
Independent samples t-tests in text
The data are availableThis is an SPSS data file. The key for the variables for your analyses is given below.
SEX (1 = Female, 2 = Male)
SELF_ESTEEM_CAT(1 = Low Self-esteem, 2 = High-esteem)
For your analyses, you are going to:
Use Descriptives in SPSS – to calculate mean or median of Narcissism.
Use Correlate-Bivariate – to examine the correlations between Narcissism and SNS-related variables (i.e., SNS time; SNS friends; SNS photos).
Compare Means – to compare mean scores in Narcissism for Low and High Self-Esteem. Independent sample t-tests will be used to test the significance of the mean differences.
Use Split File and Organise the output by Self-Esteem groups, use Correlate-Bivariate to examine the associations between Narcissism and SNS-related variables or other relevant variables.
As a general guide, the discussion section should be about 750-800 words long. There is a specific structure that your discussion section should follow:
A suggested framework is:
Re-state the aims of the study
Report the average level of Narcissism
State whether the hypothesis has been supported
Answer the research question.
Relate the findings back to previous research/theoretical explanations
Give possible explanations of findings or possible reasons for non-significant or unexpected findings.
Implications and suggestions for future research
References to get you started:
Not all sections of these papers will be relevant to your project so read selectively. All of these papers are available in electronic form. You access them from the library databases by typing in keywords and the names of the authors.
You are not expected to use all of these papers, but you are expected to do some independent research and find at least 3 more articles.
These references aren’t necessarily in the correct format, you are expected to present your references in the correct APA format. Marks are awarded for correct referencing format.
Ang, R. P., &Yusof, N. (2006). Development and Initial Validation of the Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children: A preliminary investigation using school‐based Asian samples. Educational Psychology,26(1), 1-18
Buffardi, L.E. and Campbell, W.K. (2008) Narcissism and Social Networking Web Sites. Personality and Social PsychologyBulletin, 34, 1303-1314.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167208320061
Carpenter, C.J. (2012) Narcissism on Facebook: Self-Promotional and Anti-Social Behaviour. Personality and IndividualDifferences, 52, 482-486 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.011
Davenport, S.W., Bergman, S.M., Bergman, J.Z. and Fearrington, M.E. (2014) Twitter versus Facebook: Exploring theRole of Narcissism in Motives and Usage of Different Social Media Platforms. Computers in Human Behaviour, 32, 212-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.12.011
Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of personality assessment, 49(1), 71-75.
Lovibond, P. F., &Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour research and therapy,33(3), 335-343
Mehdizadeh, S. (2010) Self-Presentation 2.0: Narcissism and Self-Esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behaviourand Social Networking, 13, 357-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2009.0257
Murray, G., Judd, F., Jackson, H., Fraser, C., Komiti, A., Pattison, P., & Robins, G. (2009). Personality for free: Psychometric properties of a public domain Australian measure of the five-factor model. Australian Journal of Psychology, 61(3), 167-174.
Ong, E.Y.L., Ang, R.P., Ho, J.C.M., Lim, J.C.Y., Goh, D.H. and Lee, C.S. (2011) Narcissism, Extraversion and Adolescents’Self-Presentation on Facebook. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 180-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.09.022
Panek, E.T., Nardis, Y. and Konrath, S. (2013) Mirror or Megaphone?: How Relationships between Narcissism andSocial Networking Site Use Differ on Facebook and Twitter. Computers in Human Behaviour, 29, 2004-2012.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.04.012
Rosenberg, M. (1965) Society and the Adolescent Self-image. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Skues, J. L., Williams, B., & Wise, L. (2012). The effects of personality traits, self-esteem, loneliness, and narcissism on Facebook use among university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2414-2419.
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