[Solution]Starting at the beginning: ontology and epistemology

“The image of social reality upon which a theory is based” (Grix, 2001: 26)   “the claims and assumptions that are made about the nature…

“The image of social reality upon which a theory is based” (Grix, 2001: 26)
 
“the claims and assumptions that are made about the nature of social reality” (Blaikie, 2000: 8)

Claims about what exists
Claims about what this ‘reality’ might look like
Claims about what makes up reality

Different scholarly traditions have different understandings of what ‘exists’
There is a basic divide between different schools here
Objectivism v Constructivism

–Objectivism

Social phenomena (and their meanings) have an existence independent of social actors. We are confronted by ‘facts’ that are beyond our reach or influence

–Constructivism

Social phenomena (and their meanings) continually being made and re-made by social actors
Knowledge is seen as being indeterminate (i.e. nothing is definitive)………

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