The Reference list identifies the items cited in a document in enough detail so they can be located by another person. The
elements required for a Reference list are outlined below:
The Reference list appears at the end of the article/report/document.
It is headed by the centred title References
The Reference list is organised in alphabetical order.
Each reference should be separated from the next reference by one empty line (no matter what spacing is being used).
All References should have a hanging indent (of 5-7 spaces) for the second and subsequent lines of each entry. Watch the
Formatting your Reference list video to learn how to create the hanging indent.
References cited in text must appear in the Reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal
communications and entire websites; they are cited in text only and are not included in the Reference list.
Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name(s), not the full name. E.g. Robert Mark Smith will appear as Smith, R. M.
If the Reference list includes 2 or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order with the earliest first. If
these references were published in the same year add a letter after the date in text and in the Reference list. E.g. 2014a,
If no date is listed on a resource, use n.d. (no date) instead.
Example of citation: (Author, n.d.) / Example of reference: Author. (n.d.). Title. Retrieved from URL
If the author’s name is unavailable, use the first few words of the title of the article, book or web source, including the
appropriate capitalisation and italics formatting. E.g. (Scientists Say, 2000).
Arrange reference entries in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the first author or by title or first word if there is no
author. Ignore the words A, An, and The when alphabetising by title.
Capitalisation in APA style is very specific. In titles and subtitles of articles, chapters, and books, capitalise only the first
letter of the first word; the first letter of a subtitle and any proper nouns. For journal titles you must capitalise the first letter
of every word.
Italicise book titles, journal titles, and volume numbers. Do NOT italicise issue numbers.
If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is listed on either a print or an electronic source it is included in the reference. A DOI is a
unique alphanumeric string that is used to identify a certain source (typically journal articles). It is often found on the first
page of an article. An acceptable DOI does not include any CDU or ‘ezproxy’ information:
Acceptable DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
Not acceptable DOI: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/10.1016/j.colegn.2015.09.002
If the article doesn’t have a DOI then provide the URL.
Example: Retrieved from http://pit.sagepub.com/lookup/pmid?view=long&pmid=27207405
When the Reference entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it before a slash or dash or at
another logical division point. ie:http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/mf/4102.0/opendocument#frombanner=LN
Remember to set your Word preferences to remove hyperlinks from URLs to prevent them appearing with an underline.
It is possible to use an abbreviated version of an organisational author in text, but you must use it in full the first time. In-text
example: (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Use square brackets if it is within parentheses. In your Reference list
use the full name of the author.
The post APA Citation Fundamentals
Assignment status: Solved by our experts