What are the four organizational strategy types? Describe how an organization chooses which strategy to implement.
According to Miles et al. (1978), there are four types of approach to determining the adaptive problems. Ideally, the companies are then categorized by the ‘Strategic Types’ skeleton as that incorporates the following: Defender, Prospector, Analyzer, and Reactor. A Defender remains a corporate that, having achieved control of a given market focuses on making it secure. A Prospector concentrates on the innovation and discharge of novel products into present or new markets or both. An Analyzer tries to balance a Prospector innovation with Defender efficiency. Reactors, on the other hand, cooperate, which are incapable or reluctant to take a steady approach (Miles et al., 1978). None of the four types is necessarily right or wrong. Ideally, an individual company may be successful in doing diverse things. In the same way, an organization may decide to implement a novel product after every quarter, or may center all the corporate energies on a star product. What remains significant; however, is that the kind of competitive strategy that the company chooses that requires to be customized to the way the organization is structured (Miles et al., 1978).
Provide an example of the three prevention strategies: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention as they relate to disaster epidemiology. Justify your rationale.
Prevention incorporates an extensive range of activities aimed at the reduction of threats or risks to health. Primary prevention focuses on preventing injury or disease before it ever happens. Examples of this strategy are enforcement and legislation to control or ban the employment of hazardous products (for instance asbestos) or to authorize healthy and safe practices (for instance, the use of bike helmets and seatbelts). Both examples prevent exposures to risks, which cause injury or disease, modifying unsafe or unhealthy behaviors, which can bring about injury or disease, and raise resistance to injury or disease should exposure take place (Nies & McEwen, 2015).
Secondary prevention focuses on reducing the effect of an injury or disease, which has already occurred. Examples of this strategy include regular screening and examination to diagnose disease in its initial stages, for instance, mammography to diagnose breast cancer). Another example is a low-dose administration of aspirins daily or exercise and diet programs to avoid further strokes. The two examples detect and treat disease immediately possible to stop or slow the disease progress, encourage individual strategies to stop a recurrence, and implement programs to return them to original health status and work to prevent long-standing problems (Nies & McEwen, 2015).
Tertiary prevention aims at softening the effects of a current sickness or injury, which has lasting impacts. Examples of tertiary strategy is stroke rehabilitation plans, management programs for chronic disease and support groups, which permit individuals to share approaches for living well (Nies & McEwen, 2015).
How is surveillance systems used in post-disaster situations? Support your answer with examples and evidence.
SPEED (Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters) remains an early disease surveillance warning system for post-disaster states launched. The system aims at determining potential and early disease epidemics as well as monitor trends of disease. Surveillance systems are used in post-disaster situations by detecting an early unusual rise in communicable and non-communicable diseases. Also, it is used in the monitoring of health tendencies to establish the efficiency of intervention. In addition, it enables detection of suitable reaction to take care of the emergency (Leaning & Guha-Sapir, 2013). SPEED was conceptualized in the provision of real-time healthcare information reporting following a disaster. For instance, an association between the Philippine Health Department and World Health Organization, the idea turned out to be realism with the support of financial support associates like AusAID (Australian Agency for International Development), USAID (United States Agency for International Development), European Union, and Government of Finland (Leaning & Guha-Sapir, 2013).
Explain the life cycle of public health partnerships. Why are collaborative partnerships important? What reasons or issues lead to the termination of partnerships?
Public health partnership grows over time in reaction to organizational as well as environmental changes (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008). The life cycle of public health partnerships is described below:
Adoption of initial alliance
Processes and results
Limitation of resources
Intensity and scope activities increase
Increase of type and numbers of partners
Alliance activities’ status quo sustenance
Redirection of efforts of alliance at new issues
Alliance structure transformation for the improvement of processes and results
Source: Novick, Morrow, & Mays, (2008).
Collaborative partnerships offer healthy communities’ capacity and address community health upgrading planning and action, which impact on population health effects. Also, it supports and builds healthy communities. Furthermore, it identifies, implements, and evaluates plans to tackle infrastructure and health concerns at the local and state levels (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008). Reasons that lead to the termination of partnerships are
Death of a partner,
Mentally or physically incapacitated partner,
Retirement of a partner,
Expulsion by members,
Agreement by partners to dissolve the partnership
(Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008)
What is the difference between intervention research and systems research? Provide an example of a public health advancement or accomplishment that represents each type of research. In addition, explain the role of systems research and the integration of systems theory for public health programs implemented within community-based organizations. Justify your rationale.
In intervention research studies, researchers follow (or arrange) a systematic transformation in a way to establish the impacts on a physical skill, capacity, or recital significant to performers. However, experimental and clinical research forms the commonest kinds of intervention research; however, other systematic attempts to measure the impacts of an intervention incorporate qualitative and intervention-based case studies may be incorporated. On the other hand, systems’ research aims at answering critical health development queries; this includes the design, facilitation, as well as accomplishment of research plans across the range of the healthcare system (Bowling, 2014).
Systems research light up principles that tries to give grounds for the social disparities in health as well as disease distribution. Concerning system theory for public health, it remains a perspective or paradigm, which regards the relationship among diverse elements, plans for the insinuations of their contact, and needs transdisciplinary thinking (Bowling, 2014).
Bowling, A. (2014). Research methods in health: Investigating health and health services. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.
Leaning, J., & Guha-Sapir, D. (2013). Natural disasters, armed conflict, and public health. New England journal of medicine, 369(19), 1836-1842.
Miles, RE, Snow, CC, Meyer, AD & Coleman, JHJ 1978, ‘Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process’, Academy of Management Review, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 546-62.
Nies, M. A., & McEwen, M. (2015). Community/public health nursing: Promoting the health of populations. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.
Novick, L. F., Morrow, C. B., & Mays, G. P. (2008). Public health administration: Principles for population-based management. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Pub.
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