[Solution]Final Exam Review Sheet Intro to Psychology (PS101) – SP 2016

Final Exam Review Sheet Intro to Psychology (PS101) – SP 2016 Topics that may be covered: Learning · Modeling o Characteristics of effective models ·…

Final
Exam Review Sheet
Intro
to Psychology (PS101) – SP 2016
Topics
that may be covered:
Learning
·
Modeling
o
Characteristics of effective models
·
Basics of Classical Conditioning
o
Neutral stimulus; Unconditioned
stimulus & response
o
Extinction
o
Involves Involuntary behavior
·
Basics of Operant Conditioning
o
Reinforcement; Punishment
o
Involves Voluntary behavior
Motivation & Emotion
·
External Motivation; Internal
Motivation
·
Feeling hunger without a stomach
·
Anorexia Nervosa; Bulimia Nervosa
·
Relationship between estrogen &
testosterone and sex drive
·
Optimum Arousal Theory
o
Best amount of pressure for a simple
task
o
Best amount of pressure for a
difficult task
·
The 7 basic (universal ) emotions
·
Sympathetic branch and stress/flight
or fight; Parasympathetic branch and calming/restoring to normal.
·
James Lange theory of emotion
·
Cannon Bard theory of emotion
Personality
·
Personality types
o
Introvert; extrovert
o
Type A; Type B
·
Rorschach test; Thematic Apperception
Test (TAT)
·
Central traits; Secondary traits
·
The Big 5 Traits
o
Neuroticism
o
Agreeableness
o
Conscientiousness
o
Extroversion
o
Openness
·
Id; Ego; Superego
·
Oral Stage; Anal Stage; Phallic Stage
o
Oedipal complex; Electra complex
·
Humanistic Theories
o
Self-actualization; ideal self
Abnormal Psychology
·
Diathesis Stress model
·
Delusions vs. Hallucinations
o
Most common psychotic hallucination
·
Mood disorders
o
Major depressive disorder vs.
Dysthymia
o
Seasonal Affective disorder
o
Bipolar disorder
·
Anxiety disorders
o
Specific phobia vs. Social phobia
o
PTSD
o
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
§ Obsessions
vs. Compulsions
·
Dissociative disorders
o
Dissociative amnesia
o
Dissociative identity disorder
·
Personality disorders
o
Antisocial personality disorder
o
Narcissistic personality disorder
Social Psychology
·
Social loafing
·
Conformity
o
Normative vs. Informational
·
Foot in the door vs. Door in the face
compliance
·
In group vs. Out group
·
Dispositional vs. Situational
attributions
·
Diffusion of responsibility
·
Passionate vs. Companionate love
·
Frustration-aggression hypothesis
·
Aggression on hot days
·
Equal status contract
Practice Exam
The final
exam will contain 50 questionsdrawn from the questions below (10 questions from
each section).
Learning
1.
Modeling is a form of learning that
involves:
a.
A Neutral stimulus
b.
Punishing behavior
c.
Observing a behavior and repeating it
d.
Reinforcing behavior
2. All
of the following are characteristic of effective models EXCEPT:
a.
Similarity in age
b.
Similarity in gender
c.
Competitiveness
d.
Prestige / Celebrity
3. Watching
and imitating the actions of another person is called observational learning,
or:
a.
Modeling
b.
Classical conditioning
c.
Operant conditioning
d.
Insight learning
4. Learning
associations between involuntary behavior and a neutral stimulus is:
a.
Modeling
b.
Classical conditioning
c.
Operant conditioning
d.
Insight learning
5. Learning
associations between voluntary behavior and punishments or rewards is:
a.
Modeling
b.
Classical conditioning
c.
Operant conditioning
d.
Insight learning
6. Over
time, a learned response/behavior can disappear (ex. The dogs stop salivating
when the bell rings). If this happens, this is called:
a.
Discrimination
b.
Generalization
c.
Extinction
d.
Interval schedule
7. Classical
Conditioning involves what kind of behavior?
a.
Involuntary
b.
Voluntary
8. Operant
Conditioning involves what kind of behavior?
a.
Involuntary
b.
Voluntary
9. To
encourage a behavior, you would use:
a.
Reinforcement
b.
Punishment
10. To
discourage a behavior, you would use:
a.
Reinforcement
b.
Punishment
11.
A neutral stimulus is an object or
event that does NOT trigger a response.
a.
True
b.
False
12. A
neutral stimulus is an object or event which triggers a response naturally
(without any conditioning).
a.
True
b.
False
Motivation & Emotion
1.
A need or desire that energizes
behavior and directs it towards a goal is called:
a.
Emotion
b.
Motivation
c.
Perception
d.
Personality
2. __________________motivations
include money, status and other incentives.
a.
Internal
b.
External
3. __________________motivations
include personal fulfillment, and work as a socially useful activity.
a.
Internal
b.
External
4. A
person can feel hunger even if they do not have a stomach.
a.
True
b.
False
5. When
women have higher levels of estrogen and testosterone, they show a reduction
in sex drive.
a.
True
b.
False
6. Binging
on food within a short time and then vomiting or taking laxatives to avoid
gaining weight is characteristic of:
a.
Taste aversion
b.
Anorexia nervosa
c.
Bulimia nervosa
d.
Fad dieting
7. If
working on a simple task, it is best to have _____________amounts of
pressure.
a.
High
b.
Moderate
c.
Low
d.
The amount of pressure you feel will
not affect your performance.
8. If
working on a difficult task, it is best to have _____________amounts of
pressure.
a.
High
b.
Moderate
c.
Low
d.
The amount of pressure you feel will
not affect your performance.
9. Optimum
arousal theory states that too little stimulation results in _________________,
while too much stimulation results in _________________.
a.
Boredom; Boredom
b.
Stress; Boredom
c.
Stress; Stress
d.
Boredom; Stress
10. Which
of the following is NOT a basic (universal) emotion?
a.
Happiness
b.
Jealousy
c.
Surprise
d.
Disgust
11. The
parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system arouses our
flight-or-fight response and is related to stress.
a.
True
b.
False
12. The
James Lange theory of emotions believes that our bodily response occurs _______________
our thoughts and emotions.
a.
Before
b.
After
c.
At the same time as
d.
None of the above
Personality
1.
________________ are competitive and
hostile, while ___________________ are laid back and easy going.
a.
Introverted; Extroverted
b.
Extroverted; Introverted
c.
Type A; Type B
d.
Type B; Type A
2. _______________
are shy, self-focused people, while _____________ are outgoing, sociable
people.
a.
Introverted; Extroverted
b.
Extroverted; Introverted
c.
Type A; Type B
d.
Type B; Type A
3. The
_________________________ test is a projective personality test that involves
ink blots.
a.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
b.
Rorschach
c.
Objective
d.
Big 5
4. Gordon
Allport described several kinds of personality traits, including
____________________ traits, which are basic to a person’s personality and
expressed across all situations.
a.
Central
b.
Extroversion
c.
Secondary
d.
Neurotic
5. On
the Big 5 Personality scale, a person who is easily stressed out and who is
high strung would be scored as high on ___________________.
a.
Agreeableness
b.
Conscientiousness
c.
Extroversion
d.
Neuroticism
6. On
the Big 5 Personality scale, a person who is trustworthy, and very thoughtful
would be scored as high on ___________________.
a.
Agreeableness
b.
Openness
c.
Extroversion
d.
Neuroticism
7. On
the Big 5 Personality scale, a person who is creative and interested in trying
new things would be scored as high on ___________________.
a.
Agreeableness
b.
Openness
c.
Extroversion
d.
Neuroticism
8. Freud
believed that personality was made up of three parts, including the
_____________, which is present from birth, selfish, motivated by biological
drives.
a.
Ego
b.
Superego
c.
Id
d.
Electra
9. Freud
believed that personality was made up of three parts, including the
_____________, which emerges in childhood, moral, motivated by society’s rules.
a.
Ego
b.
Superego
c.
Id
d.
Electra
10. Freud’s
___________ stage is a time of personality development when the child is
preoccupied with the bowels and potty training.
a.
Oral
b.
Anal
c.
Phallic
d.
Genital
11.
Freud’s theory of personality
development identifies the ______________________ conflict at a time when the young
boy may feel rivalry with his father for his mother’s affection.
a.
Latency
b.
Phallic
c.
Electra
d.
Oedipal
12. Humanistic
theories of personality emphasize reaching self-actualization and becoming
one’s ________ self.
a.
Incongruent
b.
Congruent
c.
Actual
d.
Ideal
Abnormal Psychology
1.
The diathesis-stress model is a modern
theory of mental illness. What is diathesis?
a.
A genetic predisposition for a mental
illness
b.
A life event or stressor
c.
A triggering event
d.
A diagnosis
2.
Hallucinations are false beliefs that
one strongly holds on to (ex. Believing that people are watching you).
a.
True
b.
False
3. Major Depressive Disorder ___
a.
Depression that is related to change in seasons
4. Dysthymia
____
b. Intense depressive symptoms lasting at
least 2 weeks.
5. Seasonal Affective Disorder ____
c. More mild depressive
symptoms, but
still chronic (at least 2 years).
6.
Bipolar Disorder _______
d. Alternating between depressive episodes and manic episodes.
7.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder involves
persistent thoughts called _________________ followed by repetitive behaviors
called _______________________.
a.
Obsessions; Obsessions
b.
Compulsions; Obsessions
c.
Compulsions; Compulsions
d.
Obsessions; Compulsions
8. Post-Traumatic
Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a chronic anxiety disorder that is only possible
following exposure to a traumatic event.
a.
True
b.
False
9.
The existence of two or more
personalities within one individual is called
dissociative__________________________.
a.
Amnesia
b.
Fugue
c.
Depression
d.
Identity Disorder
10. Antisocial
Personality Disorder involves a chronic disregard and violation of the rights
of others; and indifference to the suffering of others.
a.
True
b.
False
11. Narcissistic
Personality Disorder involves extreme
shyness; avoid social interaction due to fears of inadequacy and rejection.
a.
True
b.
False
12. The
most common psychotic hallucination is auditory (hearing things/voices).
c.
True
d.
False
Social Psychology
1.
Social Loafing is the tendency of
people in a group to show less effort when not held individually accountable.
a.
True
b.
False
2. ______________________
social influence is conformity that occurs because we want to be liked.
a.
Normative
b.
Informational
c.
Compliance
d.
Obedient
3. _____________________
social influence is conformity that occurs because we believe other people’s
beliefs or actions are correct. This happens most often in new or confusing
situations.
a.
Normative
b.
Informational
c.
Compliance
d.
Obedient
4.
_________________________ :agreeing to
a large request after already agreeing to a small one.
a.
Normative influence
b.
Informational influence
c.
Door-in-the-face
d.
Foot-in-the-door
5.
Situational attributions explain
behavior through the person’s stable, enduring traits (ex. Being a jerk, being
emotional).
a.
True
b.
False
6.
______________________ love is
characterized by intense emotions, lots of passion, and usually occurs at the
start of a relationship.
a.
Companionate
b.
Passionate
c.
Committed
d.
None of the above
7.
Companionate love is characterized by
affection and emotional intimacy.
a.
True
b.
False
8. On
extremely hot days, aggression seems to:
a.
Increase
b.
Decrease
c.
Stay the same
9.
Under the equal status contract, all
of the criteria below must exist in order to reduce prejudice EXCEPT:
a.
Common goal
b.
Competitive atmosphere
c.
Working together
10. Failing
to help someone in need because you believe that other people will help instead
is called:
a.
Conformity
b.
Obedience
c.
Diffusion of Responsibility
d.
Social Facilitation
11.
Informational social influence is
conformity that occurs because we believe other people’s beliefs or actions are
correct. This happens most often in new or confusing situations.
a.
True
b.
False
12.
In Milgram’s obedience studies,
______________% of participants agreed to administer shocks all of the way up
to the highest voltage.
a.
0%
b.
Under 25%
c.
Over 50%
d.
100%

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