Please choose ONE of the following questions. Full details around marking criteria and expectations
are available in the module outline.
1. The historical tendency to ignore gender and/or sexuality in ‘malestream’ criminology is not
only sexist and homophobic, but has led to flawed understandings of crime and criminal
To what extent do you agree with this claim? (You may focus on either gender, sexuality or
both in your answer.)
2. ‘Women are typically non-criminal: they have lower rates of crime in all nations, all
communities within nations, for all age groups, for all periods of recorded history, and for
practically all crimes’. (Leonard, 1982: 1, emphasis in original)
Evaluate the significance of this fact for our understandings crime and criminal justice.
3. Are contemporary Western models of masculinity criminogenic?
4. Criminologists have debated whether women offenders are treated more leniently or more
harshly by the criminal justice system than men. Focusing on either the police or the courts,
provide a critical assessment of this debate.
5. Does the criminal justice system enforce norms of gender and/or sexuality? In your
response, you should focus on the police, courts, or prisons.
6. Criminalisation is incapable of addressing the social causes of sexual and gendered violence,
and may even lead to increased harm. Critically assess this statement in relation to sexual
violence against women, trafficking, and/or homophobic violence.
7. Why are intersectional understandings of race, class, and/or cultural differences important
for feminist and/or queer criminology? In your response you may focus on an aspect of the
criminal justice system (policing, prisons, the courts) or on sexual and gendered violence.
8. To what extent is the concept of the ‘ideal victim’ important for understanding criminal
justice responses to gendered and sexual violence. Discuss in relation to sexual violence,
trafficking or homophobic violence.
The post Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice
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