[Solution]Information & Decision Making

Content Management Information Systems Information & Decision Making Chapter 10 Information and Decision Support Systems You have seen how information systems can help a business…


Management Information

Information & Decision Making

Chapter 10 Information and Decision
Support Systems

You have seen how information
systems can help a business be successful by taking care of customers and
having the right product in the right place at the right time but how does that
happen? A business uses IS for information but it also uses this information to
make critical decisions regarding the overall company, this specialized type of
IS is called Decision Support Systems.

Decision Making and Problem Solving

Every organization needs effective
decision makingIn most cases, strategic planning
and overall goals of the organization set the course for decision makingInformation systems assist with
problem solving, helping people make better decisions and save lives 

A typical decision is not made
without due diligence, this three step approach is called the decision-making

Intelligence stageDesign stageChoice stage

Decisions can be of two different types, there are programmed
decisions, decisions made about routine business processes (how many boxes
to order for shipping product) or nonprogrammed decisions – these issues
are out of the ordinary, meetings are often required to solve these unforeseen
circumstances. Whenever a decision is made there is often a tradeoff, you need
to choose the best solution but it may be too expensive, a cheaper solution may
not fix the problem. There are models that describe these processes;

ptimization model – the best solutionatisficing model – a good solution that just might take care of the issueeuristics – rule of thumb solutions, these solutions may save meeting
time and result in a faster reaction time.

Study this flow chart of Management
Information System

(MIS), refer to your text for a
clearer image, it is figure 10.4.


Businesses refer to internal or
external sources for information in the decision making process.

nternal data sources – data warehouses, ERP and TPS systemsxternal data sources – customers, suppliers

Remember that Management Information
Systems perform the following functions:

Provide reports with fixed and
standard formatsProduce hard-copy and soft-copy
reportsUse internal data stored in computer
systemAllow users to develop custom
reportsRequire user requests for reports
developed by systems personnel

As you are now aware IS is involved
in all areas of the business.

As a review, functional aspects
of MIS are:

FinancialManufacturingMarketingSubsystemsHuman Resource ManagementAccountingGeographic Information Systems (GIS)

Characteristics of a Decision
Support System

Provide rapid access to informationHandle large amounts of data from
different sourcesProvide report and presentation
flexibilityOffer both textual and graphical
orientationSupport drill-down analysis

Capabilities & Components of a
DSS can be seen in this chart. Notice
that with strategic decisions the decision frequency is high and as the
operational aspect increases the decision frequency decreases.


Decisions are not made in a vacuum, often committees are needed, so specialized systems have
evolved called Group Support System (GSS)

Also known as group decision support
system and computerized collaborative work systemConsists of most elements in a DSS,
plus software to provide effective support in group decision makingAlso called group decision support
system or computerized collaborative work system

Executive Support Systems (ESS) are specialized applications for senior management, the upper
levels of companies need help making decisions too!

Capabilities of ESS

Defining overall visionStrategic planningStrategic organizing and staffingStrategic controlCrisis management

What are the differences between DSS
and ESS?

DSS provides variety of modeling and
analysis tools to enable users to answer questionsESS presents structured information
about aspects of the organization that executives consider important

Managing the Knowledge

Chapter 11 Knowledge Management and
Specialized Information Systems

You have learned that data consists
of raw facts, computer software and people that know how to use it can change
that data into information, the next natural step for the information and the
people that know how to use it is to turn the information into knowledge and
the people into knowledge workers. Software that specializes in converting
information into knowledge is called Knowledge Management System (KMS).
There are basically two types of knowledge, explicit and tacit.

Explicit knowledge – Can be measured and documented in reports, papers, and rulesTacit knowledge – Hard to measure and document

Using information systems such as
these specialized knowledge management systems is what turns people that work
with data (data workers) into knowledge workers. Knowledge workers have
specialized skills that they can take with them from company to company like a
carpenter or seamstress. These skills will help the knowledge worker succeed no
matter what the business as they understand how to change data to information
and then to knowledge that will help the business succeed. Effective KMS is
based on learning new knowledge and changing procedures and approaches, as a
result the business can be more efficient and prosper in the marketplace.

Technology is not only helping
people and businesses grow and succeed but technology itself is growing and
changing. Artificial intelligence systems are emerging, computers are helping
humans and helping society in general. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is
a way that amputees can control mechanical limbs with thought processes.

AI Includes: Expert systems, robotics Vision systems, natural language
processing Learning systems, neural networks

As hardware and software have
improved, programmers have been able to use more natural language processing and
voice recognition. Computer design is actually mimicking the human brain in an
endeavor known as neural networks. Another common use of AI is in

Lantek is an expert system used to
cut and fabricate metal into finished products. It reduces raw material waste
and increases profits, the goal of most manufacturing companies.

Expert systems use development tools and techniques to make businesses more
efficient but are also changing the career path of workers. Ambitious people
are taking advantage of technology to become experts in their field.

Multimedia and Virtual Reality

Multimedia is a term that has taken on new meaning as internet and web
usage has become more engaging and interactive. Multimedia is the use of:

Text and graphicsAudioVideo and animationFile conversion and compression

Designing a multimedia application:

Requires careful thought and a
systematic approachRequires that the end use of the
document or file be carefully considered

The next plateau for technology is Virtual
Reality – VR enables one or more users to move and react in a
computer-simulated environment. VR uses interface devices such as a
head-mounted display (HMD) and haptic interface so that the user can see and
feel as if they are immersed in the virtual environment.

There are many virtual reality
applications for the real world:

MedicalEducation & TrainingBusiness commerceEntertainment

AI is being used in many specialized
systems to help people in many ways:

Help overcome disabilitiesPredict tornadosAutomobile applicationsKeyless entryInformatics – Combines traditional
disciplines, such as science and medicine, with computer systems and technology
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