• How would you define “risk”? What
sorts of things does the concept of “risk” make you think of?
• Related to feelings of
• Danger is ever-present
• Degrees of risk. Possibility vs.
• Exceptional politics/States of
• From the readings, what types of
specific security practices do we associate with the concept of “risk”?
• Camera surveillance
• Wire tapping
• Internet surveillance
• Meta-data mining
• Pre-emptive arrests
• Pre-emptive/extra-judicial killing
“Control Narrative of the Internet”
• “The Control Narrative of the
• Internet users have an awareness
and an expectation that information is both monitored and used by various
audiences for various purposes.
• i.e. We expect both to watch and
be watched. We (generally) consent to this.
“Paradox of internet security”
• What is “the paradox of internet
• “… internet security requires
violation [of privacy] and surveillance…“
• Citizens expect privacy but,
paradoxically, are willing to give over personal data in order to protect that
• There is a massive amount of
personal and biometric information that is now available to those who wish to
use it. Both lawfully and unlawfully.
• Mediated interaction; Fake news;
Election tampering; “Digital Booty” and disinformation; Corporate and
government hacking etc.
• “The logic of pre-emption … in the
security strategies of the post-9/11 era is… a political rationality that
allows action to be taken in the face of apparent radical uncertainty… through
anticipatory interventions in the present” (Stockdale 2013)
– Uncertainty and “imagination” is
the basis of action
– Possible threat rather than
– Requires and normalizes
“exceptional politics” and thus, creates a permanent “state of exception”
– Ironically, can “end up producing,
reproducing, and regenerating the very thing it seeks to disarm” (insecurity
and uncertainty at the level of life and death
The post Surveillance, Risk and States of ExceptionRisk
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