[Solution]Citations and Bibliographies using the Harvard Style (AGPS version)

Referencing Citations and Bibliographies using the Harvard Style (AGPS version) ACU Faculty of Business requires that any work a student submits for assessment should be…

Referencing
Citations and Bibliographies using the Harvard Style (AGPS version)
ACU Faculty of Business requires that any work a student submits for assessment should be
researched and prepared entirely by the student. Where one’s work incorporates material from
other authors, a clear and unambiguous reference should be made to these authors.
Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you
have used in your work or assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source (Harvard
Referencing 2007). Apart from acknowledging the work of other writers, researchers and artists,
and others, and to avoid plagiarism, formal referencing enhances the material submitted and
assists the reader in a number of ways. It:
 shows the breadth of your research
 strengthens an academic argument
 provides details of the sources used for information
 allows the reader to consult sources independently
 enables data and interpretations to be verified
With regard to the way references are presented, many styles have been developed and further
customised by institutions, publishers, government authorities and industry bodies. The Faculty of
Business requires students to use the Harvard Style (AGPS version) as the standard referencing
style when preparing assignments and other written work.
Definitions
Citing: Formally recognising, within your text, the resource from which you have obtained
information.
Citation: The passage or words quoted within your text, supported with evidence of your source.
Bibliography / References: The list of sources you have used. The title Bibliography is used
when additional information (not cited in the text) is provided to further describe resources used
that assisted in preparing your work.
Reference: The detailed description of the item from which you have obtained your information.
The Harvard System
The Harvard Author Date Referencing System was developed in the USA in the 1950s, and is now
the most common referencing system used by Business Schools internationally (Quote, unquote
2004). The Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS) version of the Harvard Style is
based on the original Harvard author-date system for books, articles and “non-books”.
The main advantages of the Harvard System for both author and reader are:
 Flexibility
 Simplicity
 Clarity
 Ease of use
Sources are cited in the body of the text simply as author and year of publication (see table below
for examples). A Reference or Bibliography section at the end of the document lists all details of
each source to enable the publication to be easily located. There is no third place to look such as
footnotes and chapter references, which are features of other systems (Quote, unquote 2004).
What is referenced and when?
A reference must be provided when you quote, paraphrase or summarise another person’s work.
The type of publication from which a source is likely to be derived includes (Damarell 2006):
 Books or chapters or pages within a book
 Journal, magazine or newspaper articles
 Conference papers or proceedings
 Video, television or radio excerpts
 Personal communications such as interviews, emails or letters (cited only)
 Electronic sources such as web pages, journal articles from online databases, recorded
programmes or even software
The table below is based on the author date system (Harvard) presented in Snooks et al. 2002,
and incorporates information from Quote, unquote (2004) and Harvard Referencing (2007). It
illustrates and explains how to recognise the work of others from specific sources using the
Harvard System.
The first column describes the source of information; the second column demonstrates how to cite
the source in the body of the text and this is explained in the third column. The fourth column
shows how the reference should appear in the bibliography and an explanation of the example is
explained in column five.
References
Commonwealth of Australia 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, rev.
Snooks & Co., John Wiley & Sons Australia, Canberra.
Damarell, R 2006, Flinders University, School of Nursing and Midwifery 2006. Author-date
(Harvard) referencing guide. Retrieved 20 June 2007 from:
http://www.lib.flinders.edu.au/services/infolit/nureference.pdf
Harvard (author-date) referencing guide 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2007, from:
http://www.cqu.edu.au/referencing/ref_style/harvard_guide.pdf
Harvard referencing 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2007 from:
http://library.curtin.edu.au/referencing/harvard.pdf
Quote, unquote 2004. Retrieved 20 June 2007 from:
http://www.leedsmet.ac.uk/lskills/open/sfl/content/harvard/downloads/harvard_2004.pdf
Books Citation Example
(in text)
Reference Example
(in bibliography)
Single author ‘The theory was first propounded in 1993’ (Comfort
1997, p. 58) OR ‘Comfort (1997, p. 58) claimed
that…’
Comfort, A 1997, A good age, Mitchell Beazley, London.
2 or 3 authors (Madden & Hogan 1997, p. 45) OR Madden and
Hogan (1997, p. 45) discuss this idea…
Madden, R & Hogan, T 1997, The definition of disability in
Australia: moving towards national consistency, Australian
Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra.
4 or more authors (Leeder et al. 1996, p. 69). Leeder, SR, Dobson, AJ, Gibbers, RW, Patel, NK,
Mathews, PS, Williams, DW & Mariot, DL 1996, The
Australian film industry, Dominion Press, Adelaide.
No author ‘This was apparently not the case before about
1995’ (Advertising in the Western Cape 1990, p.
14)… OR ‘In Advertising in the Western Cape
(1990, p. 14) it was claimed that…’
Advertising in the Western Cape 1990, ABC Publishers,
Cape Town.
Multiple works by same
author
‘University research (Brown 1982, 1988) has
indicated that…’
Brown, P 1982, Corals in the Capricorn group, Central
Queensland University, Rockhampton.
Brown, P 1988, The effects of anchor on corals, Central
Queensland University, Rockhampton.
Multiple works published
in the same year by the
same author
‘In recent reports (Napier 1993a, 1993b)…’ Napier, A 1993a, Fatal storm, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.
Napier, A 1993b, Survival at sea, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.
Order alphabetically by title in the reference list.
Including page numbers in the citation is only required if a direct quotation of the author is used in the text.
No publication date It has been detailed that all seventeen cases have
been reported in this way (Pirotta, n.d.).
Pirrotta, P n.d., Reference title (book) or Reference title
(journal) etc. Remainder of reference listed as usual.
Direct Quotations “These resting times provide periods for reflection
and permit time for new things to be learned,
mastered and brought to fruition” (Jones, 1995,
pp.122-3).
Jones, A.W. 1995. Learners at the centre of the
educational process. Newcastle: Shearer Publishing, pp.
122-123.
Editor (Kastenbaum 1993, p. 78). Kastenbaum, R (ed.) 1993, Encyclopedia of adult
development, Oryx Press, Phoenix.
Different Editions Renton (2004, p. 5) suggests that… Renton, N 2004, Compendium of good writing, 3rd edn,
John Wiley & Sons, Milton.
Encyclopedia or
Dictionary
The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians
(1980, p. 85) defined it as…
Sadie, S (ed.) 1980, The new Grove dictionary of music
and musicians, 6th edn, Macmillan, London.
Article or chapter in a
book
As discussed by Blaxter (1976, p. 101) OR health
issues are discussed (Baxter 1976, p 101).
Blaxter, M 1976, Social class and health inequalities, in C
Carter & J Peel (eds), Equalities and inequalities in health,
Academic Press, London, pp. 120-135.
Article or chapter in a
book – no author
(Solving the Y2K problem 1997, p. 23). Solving the Y2K problem 1997, in D Bowd (ed.),
Technology today and tomorrow, Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York, p. 27.
Brochure (Research and Training Centre 1993, p. 2). Research and Training Centre on Independent Living
1993, Guidelines for reporting and writing about people
with disabilities [Brochure], 4th edn, Research and
Training Centre, Melbourne. The publisher’s name may
be abbreviated if it is also the author.
E-book (Pettinger 2002). Pettinger, R 2002, Global organizations, Capstone
Publishing, Oxford. Retrieved September 28, 2004, from
NetLibrary database.
Thesis (Jones 1998, p. 89). Jones, F 1998, The mechanism of Bayer residue
flocculation, PhD Thesis, Curtin University of Technology.
Retrieved December 21, 2005, from Curtin University of
Technology Digital Theses.
Research Reports (Mullineux 1997). Mullineux, N. (1997) The world tyre industry: a new
perspective to 2005. Research Report 348. London,
Economist Intelligence Unit.
Conference Proceeding
and Papers
(Debono 2000). Debono, C 2000, The National Trust into the new
millennium, Proceedings of the ninth meeting of the
International National Trust, Australian Council of National
Trusts, Alice Springs, NT, pp. 44-6. Retrieved January 20,
2006, from Informit Online database.
Annual report of an
organisation
(Department of Transport and Regional Services
2001) OR Billabong’s annual report (2005).
Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001,
Annual report 2001-2002, Canberra. OR Billabong
International Ltd. 2005, Annual report 2005 – brands.
Retrieved January 27, 2006, from Connect4 database.
Image in a book The poster ‘Buy Australian Apples’ (Cowle &
Walker 2005, p. 65).
Cowle, C & Walker, D 2005, The art of apple branding,
Apples from Oz, Hobart.
Print Journals Citation Example
(in text)
Reference Example
(in bibliography)
Article As mentioned by Wharton (1996, p. 8)… Wharton, N 1996, Health and safety in outdoor activity
centres, Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor
Leadership, 12, (4) 8-9.
Article – no author ‘It’s a growing problem in the U.K.’ (Anorexia
nervosa 1969, p. 530)..
Anorexia nervosa 1969, British Medical Journal 1, 529-30.
Newspaper/Magazine
article
(Towers 2000). Towers, K 2000, Doctor not at fault: coroner, Australian,
18 January, p. 3.
Newspaper article – no
author
…..in the Sydney Morning Herald (24 January
2000, p. 12).
Provide all the details in the in-text citation – no need for
an entry in the reference list.
Press release (Watersmith 2000). Watersmith, C 2000, BHP enters new era, media release,
BHP Limited, Melbourne, 1 March.
Electronic Journals Citation Example
(in body of text)
Reference Example
(in Bibliography)
Full text from an
electronic database
(Madden 2002). Madden, G 2002, Internet economics and policy: an
Australian perspective, Economic Record, vol. 78, no.
242, pp. 343-58. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from
ABI/INFORM Global database.
Full text from an
electronic database – no
author
‘The internet has had a huge impact on the
Australian economy’ (Internet economics and
policy 2002, p. 350).
Internet economics and policy: an Australian perspective
2002, Economic Record, vol. 78, no. 242, pp. 343-58.
Retrieved October 16, 2002, from ABI/INFORM Global
database.
Full text newspaper,
newswire or magazine
from electronic database
– no author
(WA packed with overseas appeal 2004). WA packed with overseas appeal 2004, West Australian,
12 November, p. 47. Retrieved November 13, 2004,
from Factiva database
Full text from the internet It was proposed by Byrne (2004) that… Byrne, A 2004, The end of history: censorship and
libraries, The Australian Library Journal, vol. 53, no. 2.
Retrieved November 16, 2004, from
http://www.alia.org.au/publishing/alj/53.2/full.text/
byrne.html
Article from database on
CD-ROM (BPO)
(La Rosa 1992, p. 58). La Rosa, SM 1992, Marketing slays the downsizing
dragon, Information Today, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 58- 9.
Retrieved October 16, 2002, from UMI Business
Periodicals Ondisc database.
Secondary Sources Citation Example
(in text)
Reference Example
(in bibliography)
Book ‘Including neuralgia’ (Carini and Hogan, cited in
Thibodeau & Patton 2002, p. 45) OR Carini and
Hogan (cited in Thibodeau & Patton 2002, p. 45)…
Thibodeau, GA & Patton, KT (eds.) 2002. The human
body in health and disease, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo.
Journal Article ‘…origins of neuralgia’ (Carini and Hogan, cited in
Patton 2002, p. 2154) OR Carini and Hogan (cited
in Patton 2002).
Patton, KT 2002, Neuralgia and headaches, Science, vol.
4, pp. 2153-55.*

Record the book that you actually sourced
World Wide Web Citation Example
(in text)
Reference Example
(in bibliography)
Document on WWW ‘It’s essential you learn how to reference’ (Dawson
et al. 2002).
Dawson, J, Smith, L, Deubert, K & Grey-Smith, S 2002,
‘S’ Trek 6: referencing, not plagiarism. Retrieved October
31, 2002, from http://studytrekk.lis.curtin.edu.au/
Document on WWW – No
author
(Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons 2001). Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons 2001.
Retrieved November 13, 2002, from
http://www.windspeed.net.au/~jenny/seadragons/
Document on WWW – No
date
(Royal Institute of British Architects n.d.). Royal Institute of British Architects n.d., Shaping the
future: careers in architecture. Retrieved May 31, 2005,
from http://www.careersinarchitecture.net/
Image on the web The image of the bleached coral (Coral bleaching
and mass bleaching events 2002).
Coral bleaching and mass bleaching events [Image] 2002.
Retrieved September 2, 2005 from
http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/
science/bleaching
Government Publications Citation Example
(in text)
Reference Example
(in bibliography)
Act of Parliament The Commonwealth’s Copyright Act 1968… Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth).
Cases The State of New South Wales v. The
Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54.
Legal authorities are included in a list of references only if
they are important to an understanding of the work.
Australian Bureau of
Statistics Bulletin
(Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999). Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999, Disability, ageing
and carers: summary of findings, cat. no. 4430.0, ABS,
Canberra.
Australian Bureau of
Statistics from AusStats
(Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999). Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999, Disability, ageing
and carers: summary of findings, cat. no. 4430.0, ABS,
Canberra. Retrieved October 14, 2002, from AusStats
database.
Census Information (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001). Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001, Census of population
and housing: B01 selected characteristics (First release
processing) postal area 6050. Retrieved November 20,
2002, from AusStats database.
Government Report (Resource Assessment Commission 1991). Resource Assessment Commission 1991, Forest and
timber inquiry: draft report, vol. 1, Australian
Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Patent U.S. Patent No. 4554399 (1985). Cookson, AH 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas
insulated transmission systems, U.S. Patent 4554399.
Standard (Standards Australia 1997). Standards Australia 1997, Size coding scheme for
infants’ and children’s clothing – underwear and
outerwear, AS 1182-1997. Retrieved January 10, 2006,
from Standards Australia Online database.
Other Sources Citation Example
(in text)
Reference Example
(in bibliography)
Personal communication,
e-mail and discussion lists
with no web archive.
‘It was confirmed that an outbreak occurred in
London’ (S Savieri 1999, pers. comm., 24 April).
Not included in reference list as they cannot be traced
by the reader.
Email messages C. Tutor (personal communication, 13 October
2008).
Tutor, C. (chris.tutor@thomson.com), 13 October 2008.
Re: reference style in assignments and large projects.
Email to A. Student (a.student@fttnesp.net.au).
Films and video
recording,
(Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992). Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992, video recording,
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney. Featuring
the Sydney Symphony Orchestra.
Television and radio
programmes
(What are we going to do with the money? 1997). What are we going to do with the money? 1997, television
programme, SBS Television, Sydney, 8 August.
Podcasts (The wings of a butterfly – children, teenagers and
anxiety 2005).
The wings of a butterfly – children, teenagers and
anxiety 2005, podcast radio programme, ABC Radio
National, Sydney, 10 September. Retrieved September
16, 2005, from
http://www.abc.net.au/podcast/default.htm#mind
CD-ROMS (Dr Brain thinking games 1998). Dr Brain thinking games 1998, CD-ROM, Knowledge
Adventure Inc., Torrance, California.
ERIC document
(microfiche)
Davis & Lombardi (1996) put forward the proposal
that…
Davis, RK & Lombardi, TP 1996, ‘The quality of life of
rural high school special education graduates’, in Rural
goals 2000: Building programs that work. ERIC Document
No. 394765, microfiche.
E-mail discussion list –
web archive
(Little 2002). Little, L 2002, Two new policy briefs, ECPOLICY
discussion list, 16 April. Retrieved November 13, 2002
from http://www.askeric.org/Virtual
Listserv_Archives/ECPOLICY/2002/Apr_2002/
Msg00003.html
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