Understand the context of the positive behavioural support model
Explain how Positive Behavioural Support has been influenced by Applied
Behaviour Analysis? 1.1a
From what I understand PBS is
used to try to find meaning in behavioural patterns, whereas ABA practically
assess methods of change in the behaviour through adaptation. Therefore,
logically the influence would be that through learning patterns, one could
establish a focal point.
By using ABA to learn how to find
the most effective method to asses and or change a behavioural pattern, one
would indirectly be applying PBS. Therefore, being able to identify markers in
which to use as said focal point to find an alternative method and more
positive outcome. In summary, PBS is influenced by ABA due to it utilising the
finding of one practice to implement another.
Explain how Positive Behavioural Support has been influenced by social
role Valorisation? 1.1b
The influence has come from
utilising the Positive Behavioural Model to establish the reasons behind the
need for social role valorisation. The PBS is then used two-fold, firstly its
used to find a way for the majority to accept the few, by means of establishing
avenues of inclusion. Secondly it is used to adapt the few in developing the
mindset that allows them to feel included. In summary PBS is influenced by SRV
because its model it designed to establish why society acts the way it does by
placing individuals into groups.
Summarise current legislation and policy guidance relating to Positive
Behavioural Support? 1.2
I will come back to this one later.
Understand the term Challenging Behaviour
Define the term Challenging behaviour? 2.1
The definition of challenging
behaviour is where an individual’s actions through their behaviour, directly
interferes with their own or another’s personal welfare. Causes immediate
danger as a result of behaviour and or disrupts the daily lives of anyone
connected to or indirectly affected.
Explain the reason for the term challenging behaviour coming into use?
The term challenging behaviour
came into use due to the previous description, behaviourally disturbed used to
be used and was deemed to be a negative way to label individuals. The
behaviourally disturbed term was considered to be counterproductive,
relationships between an individual with the behaviour and the person caring
for them were considered affected by the term.
Analyse key factors that lead to a behaviour being defined as
According to the charity Scope, there are four
main key factors that lead to behaviour being defined as challenging
Self-Injurious: This type of behaviour can be seen as challenging
due to an individual causing themselves direct harm though scratching, biting,
head banging. Cutting etc.
Aggressive: Striking by use
of limbs and or objects, verbal abuse focussed directly and or indirectly,
vocal volume levels, Defiance by use of bodily fluids in threatening manners
such as spitting.
Stereotyped: Any actions usually perceived to be pigeon holed to a
troubled individual such as, rocking, repetitiveness through speech and
interaction with objects.
Non-person directed: Things
not focussed on an individual such as, theft, vandalism, inability to
distinguish appropriate behaviour such that of a sexual nature. Distancing or
even excessive reactions such as overly energetic.
Understand the context in which challenging behaviour occurs.
Summarise key environmental risk factors for challenging behaviour? 3.1
Key environmental risk factors that
can influence challenging behaviour are:
The physical environment that they are in, such as the
lighting it could be far too bright or far too dark. Heat being too hot or too
cold. The colours surrounding an individual may unsettle them subconsciously.
Certain smells may trigger past repressed memories.
Quality of the social environment, is the individual bored
where they are, have they been isolated/ placed in a secluded area. Do they get
support from the family or people they are living with, to they communicate
with those they are surrounded by? Loneliness by choice or though mistreatment.
Do they have a choice on how they conduct their daily lives, do they have
support regarding those choices?
Unfamiliar environments, does the individual even know what
is happening around them. Unpredictable occurrences because of an unfamiliar
territory. Confusion due to lack of communication through transitional
periods. Changes in routine due to unforeseen
circumstances or bad man management.
Explain how slow and
fast triggers contribute to challenging behaviour? 3.2
Slow triggers such as headaches, aches and pains, anxiety,
depression, chronic failures, keeping quiet about emotional stress et. These amongst
many others can elevate situations where if absent wouldn’t generally bother an
individual, or simply make them react with stronger behavioural stance. They
don’t necessarily disappear once triggering has occurred and can stay an
Fast triggers are typically those that instigate an
emotional response immediately. Things such as being told to do something you
don’t want to do, being denied something, being ignored, being confused etc.
These have a clear time line to when they start and finish due to the display
of the behavioural response.
A fast trigger may conclude becoming a slow trigger after
the initial response, therefore contribute directly to amplifying a second fast
trigger. These triggers may or may not have the same identity as their previous
counterparts, or in fact may develop into a completely new trigger, changing
the outcome of the behavioural response entirely.
Analyse the role of
reinforcement in maintaining behaviour? 3.3
Reinforcement for maintaining behaviour has two
classifications, these are positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement is the action of the reward for good
behaviour, such as giving an ice cream to a child. The ice cream was given due
to the child remaining well behaved, whilst they accompanied a parent around a
supermarket. Thus, the child will attempt to be well behaved during the
shopping trip to receive their favourite treat as a result.
Negative reinforcement is the action of turning a negative
into a positive to establish a response. Such as the application to purchase
something on a financial plan. If you are accepted, you are given the choice of
a lower monthly interest rate by placing down a deposit. You are still paying
monthly for the item you desire however you are paying less for it by initially
adding money at the beginning.
Levels of effectiveness can be applied to both positive and
For example; the effectiveness of positive reinforcement can
be amplified. This can be done by the parent adding chocolate sprinkles to the
child’s ice cream for being polite as well as well behaved. Thus, increasing
the reward for the increased effort.
The same can be said about negative reinforcement. By adding
a larger deposit at the start of your financial agreement you effectively
reduce the interest rates further. Thus, paying an amount closer to the
purchase price of the item.
Both methods require continuous monitoring as the behaviours
evolve around the reinforcement. The reinforcement process is constantly
revolving and includes those who implement it as well. For example;
A salesman is rewarded a bonus for hitting his targets
before their due dates. The manager of the salesman who gives the reward is
rewarded a bonus for his team hitting their targets. The company who employs
the manager and the salesman increase their profits due to the manager and the
salesman achieving their goals. The company grows due to its increased profits,
the share holders are encouraged to invest more due to the company’s success.
The larger the investment the bigger the bonus and so on.
A natural progression of behaviour will occur due to
constant maintenance. Eventually reinforcement will no longer be required in
the consistency it once was, as the behaviour will be maintained by the
individual who was the subject of reinforcement.
In summary, reinforcement plays a vital role in maintaining
behaviour as it has an evolutionary effect. The behaviour cycle is
subconsciously reinforced in all who are involved, therefore can also transfer
to those who are indirectly connected. The reinforcement cycle then repeats
itself, through other maintaining behaviour.
Explain the time
intensity model? 3.4
The time intensity model shows the stages an individual goes
through within the challenging behaviour cycle.
The stages are as follows,
Calm, where an
individual is there usual self, going about their day.
Trigger, this is
the starting point of the challenging side to the behaviour, the reason the
reaction to the trigger where emotions and memories of an event are brought
this is where the actions of challenging behaviour begin to take place.
Peak, this is the
point where the emotions and actions collide, creating an outburst of the
this is where the emotional and physical energy built up because of the
behaviour starts to dissipate, resulting an individual questioning their
actions and other reactions.
healing period where the behaviour is reflected upon and the cycle returns to
The model can be used to track time patterns and levels of
behaviour, in turn this will help avoidance and clearer management techniques
in the future.
Be able to
contribute to the functional analysis in relation to an individual’s
Describe the key
components of functional analysis? 4.1
The key components of functional analysis are as follows.
The identification of any relevant behavioural traits
displayed by an individual, including the circumstances in in which they occur.
This initial step factors in past and or referral information, observations and
opinions of current assessments.
The organisation of the information collected. This process
is used to establish and analytical view of an individual’s behavioural traits.
This is then used to establish changes needed using behavioural principles.
Essentially narrowing the focus into classes that are considered more important
than others, such as context, motivation and the form of behaviour.
Additional information, based on the findings from the
initial analysis, further information is gathered relevant to the previous
focus that was implemented. Types of assessment may be identified to look
further into what was found in the information.
Create intervention plan from the information gathered from
the initial analysis and assessments. The plan utilises all aspects of the
classifications and information, this enables it to be focused on the direct
The implementation of the plan and essentially the treatment
of the individual.
The outcome of the plan and treatment, if unsuccessful the
initial assessment and findings should be readdressed the process should then
be adjusted accordingly and or restarted.
Explain the key
methods of analysing behaviour? 4.2
Due to its complexity there are several ways one can analyse
behaviour. Analysing the environmental factors. Such as time of day, location,
support and surrounding influences. The analysis of a personal condition. Such
as current feeling, known tolerances, level of understanding in communication
and personal environment.
The analysis of the behaviours themselves, taking detailed
observational notes and combining them. Looking at the consequences of the
behaviour through the input of positive or negative reinforcement factors that
may influence actions or reactions. Antecedents in the form of triggers and
past events leading up to the challenging part of the behaviour.
records of behaviour using a structured method? 4.3
Is this an observation?
environmental risk factors for an individual’s challenging behaviour? 4.4
Environmental risk factors that can affect an individual’s
behaviour are isolation, both forced and by choice. Lack of choice in regard to
the individual’s personal surroundings, far too much choice leading to
confusion. The physical environment itself such as noises, people, temperature,
location. The level of support given/offered from family, friends or
slow and fast triggers for an individual’s challenging behaviour? 4.5
Triggers that initiate challenging behaviour, whether slow
or fast really depends on the individual. A slow trigger could have resulted
from a past fast trigger, obviously the opposite can also be factored in.
Slow triggers such as past trauma, abuse, hurt and loss.
Physical chronic pain, anxiety and depression possibly brought on by financial
worries and or family matters etc. Genuine phobias (can be placed within both
fast and slow triggers parameters)
Fast triggers such as being denied, dismissed and or
interrupted. Lies (can also be both fast and slow). Sudden changes in routine,
environment, unexpected information. Unwanted requests, ordered, singled out.
Consequences, penalties and fines.
Identify factors that
may contribute to reinforcement of an individual’s challenging behaviour? 4.6
Factors that may contribute could be the individuals level
of understanding, by either diminished capacity or education level. Mental
health problems that effect the individuals thought process. Medication that
also contributes to the natural ability to process information. Lack of
information and or incorrectly provided information. Overall physical health by
self-neglect and or illnesses. Level and style of support provided to the
individual. Poorly managed plans that have been developed to help, end up
importance of functional analysis in effective person centred behavioural
intervention for individuals? 4.7
Functional analysis allows us to constantly evolve how we
approach a situation, through continuously analysing the behaviour of an
individual. Person centred plans are specifically designed to be personally
tailored to an individual, which can only be achieved by understanding every
aspect of the individual. Functional analysis not only allows us to constantly
study how the plans are working, it allows us to change the way we work those
plans as we impliment them. This is not only better for the maintenance procedure,
it also greatly benefits the individual. Applying the analysis with the plan in
this manner, allows the transitions of treatment to be smoother. Smoother
transitions essentially could mean more positive responses from the individual.
Therefore, the combination of both would allow the individual to grow without
compromising their welfare.
Understand the key
characteristics of Positive Behavioural Support
Describe the key
characteristics of Positive Behavioural support? 5.1
Positive behavioural support is used to establish an
understanding of the reasons behind the challenging parts of behaviour. This is
done through various assessments which study the individuals social, mental and
physical health. The assessments also break these down into past and present
events enabling them to have a clearer picture. Plans are then created and
implemented utilising various methods of support to improve the individual’s
quality of life.
Explain the role
within Positive Behavioural Support of primary prevention strategies? 5.2a
Explain the role
within Positive Behavioural Support of secondary prevention strategies? 5.2b
importance of social validity in the Positive Behavioural Support of
non-aversive reactive strategies? 5.2c
Explain the importance
of social validity in the Positive Behavioural Support Model? 5.3
Be able to
impliment primary prevention strategies.
Summarise the key
primary prevention strategies? 6.1
Impliment an agreed
primary prevention strategy using least restrictive practice
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