[Solution]Lesson Plan 2 : In Another’s Voice

Introduction One of the tools available to poets is persona, the choice to enter into a voice that is not the writer’s own, whether it…

Introduction One of
the tools available to poets is persona, the choice to enter into a voice that
is not the writer’s own, whether it is a person who lives in another time or
place, a person at another stage of life, a person whose experience has been
different from the writer’s—or not a person at all, perhaps an object or an
animal. In this way, the poet sees the world through other eyes; speaking
directly to the reader, the persona helps us see the world differently as well.
This is a distinction from dramatic monologues in which the speaker addresses a
silent listener who is usually not the reader. In Poetry Out Loud, the
performer is already entering into another voice, the poem’s voice; but a young
person new to poetry may have difficulty inhabiting that voice. In persona
poems, the writer gives explicit cues to help the reader imagine the speaker,
so these poems will support students in preparing their recitation. Persona
poems often have dramatic elements, which will help students work on the
“dramatic appropriateness” of their performance.Learning Objectives Students will learn how to · analyze the
poet’s characterization of the speaker in each poem; · analyze the ways in which the poet suggests a dramatic
situation or narrative for its speaker; and adapt his/her speech to the task of
recitation. In addition, if you choose the literary writing extension, students
will be able to: · write an
effective persona poem of their own. If you choose the academic writing
extension, students will be able to · compare two persona poems, making a claim that is true
of both poems and supporting that claim with textual evidence. Materials and Resources To teach this lesson you
will need: · A computer with
speakers; if possible, a laptop cart with earphones · Printed copies
of the poems you select from the Poetry Out Loud Anthology
(http://www.poetryoutloud.org/poems-and-performance/find-poems). Recommended
selections: § John Berryman,
“Dream Song 14” (Paul Muldoon reading this poem with others by Berryman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfvwNnKXZc8)
§ William Blake,
“The Chimney Sweeper: When my mother died I was

Activity Description Day 1:
Model 1. Group your students (groups of 2-4) according to their learning needs,
and choose poems that are appropriate to each group of readers, based on
reading level, students’ interests, etc. Include at least one poem where the
speaker is not human, and you might include a poem by Brenda Cárdenas or Victor
Hernández Cruz if you have students with some knowledge of Spanish. 2. Model an
approach to one of the poems: a. Choose one of the poems for which you have
an audio performance, one that is most appropriate for your cohort as a whole.
Distribute copies of the poem and ask the students to think about who is
speaking in the poem while they listen—not who is performing, but who is the
dramatic character.b. After
they listen, have them read the poem silently to themselves, annotating the
text with the same lens: who is speaking, and how does the poet let us know who
the speaker is? What lines show us different aspects of this speaker? What is
the dramatic situation in which the speaker finds himself/herself? c. Have
students meet in small collaborative groups to share their annotations and
develop a group description of this speaker. Listen to the discussions and
guide the students’ understanding. d. Small
groups report out to the whole class, with the teacher leading the discussion
towards a full understanding of the speaker. Introduce the terms “persona” and
“voice” in this discussion, as some of the tools that poets have available to
them. e. If
time permits, you can begin the guided practice on the first day; description
is included in Day 2.Guided
practice 3. Remind students of the work they’d completed on the first poem and
invite them to read a new set of poems in the same way. Have them think about
who is speaking in the poem and describe the dramatic situation in which the
speaker finds himself/herself. a. Assign each group another poem. Providing
laptops and earphones so students can listen to a performance would enhance
their experience, but is not necessary. b. Invite them to go through the same process
in their groups, listening first if possible, reading silently while
annotating, then discussing. The discussion should focus on developing a
description of the speaker and of his/her dramatic situation. Students should
be able to identify the lines that led them to understand the speaker and
his/her situation. c. Their
discussion will allow the students to prepare to read the poem aloud, which
they can do in the way they feel is most effective: one voice or several
voices, together or sequentially or in a pattern that moves between one and
several voices.

Lesson Plan
3 : Poetry,
Celebrity, and the Power of Connotation Learning Objectives: In this lesson, students will have
opportunities to • Read
and discuss poems that invoke Abraham Lincoln • Decide
which associations with that name are relevant to the poem (there will not be a
single “right answer,” but several) • Learn
several contrasting rhetorical “moves” that poets make by invoking famous
figures • Find,
present, and discuss comparable “name-dropping” poems from the Poetry Out Loud
website • Write a “name-dropping” poem themselves, using one or more of the
rhetorical moves they have learned Materials and Resources: To teach
this lesson you will need: • Access for students to the Poetry Out Loud
anthology in its print or on-line versions, preferably both

Activity Description 1. Introduce students to the idea that poems
use the names of famous historical figures— politicians, performers, explorers,
etc.—as a kind of shorthand. Readers are not just supposed to recognize the
names, but also to have associations with those names that are somehow relevant
to the poem. 2. Ask students to brainstorm the ideas,
values, or events that they or other people might associate with the name
“Abraham Lincoln.” (Including “other people” is helpful, as students can often
imagine someone else having associations that they don’t actually have
themselves.) Students might come up with associations like these: • “Freed
the slaves” (this may provoke some argument) • Civil
War, or “Saved the Union” •
Gettysburg Address • Assassinated, died before his time, before
he could bring the country back together • A self-made man: went from log-cabin
to White House • A sad
man, or a melancholy one • On the penny and the five-dollar bill

Lesson Plan 4:Golden ShovelLearning Objectives In this unit, students will have opportunities
to: • Read a
wide range of poems from the Poetry Out Loud website • Discuss
what makes language interesting and surprising (i.e., what makes a “striking
line”) • Discuss the importance of word choice in
poetry and what makes an intriguing or memorable word choice • Learn a new poetic form—the Golden Shovel • Read
and discuss sample “Golden Shovel” poems • Apply a “borrowed” line from a poem to
create one’s own Golden Shovel poem • Learn
and apply public speaking skills • Read a
Poetry Out Loud poem, along with an original poem for his/her classmates in a
supportive environment Resources
and Materials To teach this unit you will need:• Copies
of the poems provided at the end of this lesson • Student
access to the Poetry Out Loud website • Lots of whiteboard or chalkboard space • Paper
and writing utensils

Session One This session will help students determine what
lines and word choices stand out in good poetry and will provide background for
writing their original poetry. It will also introduce the Golden Shovel form. 1.
Discuss what makes a “striking line” in literature (i.e., a line that is especially
interesting, surprising and original; that jumps out at the reader; and/or that
makes the reader think). 2. Read
Jane Cooper’s “Hunger Moon” aloud. Then have students read it silently, while
underlining striking lines. For example: “The last full moon of February /
stalks the fields” “barbed wire casts a shadow.” “it advances on my pillow”
“with the cocked gun of silence.” “The moon, in pale buckskins, crouches” “all
the fences thrum” 3. Next,
discuss the importance of surprising/unusual word choices in poetry. Have
students underline those words from the striking lines on the board (i.e.,
“stalks,” “barbed,” “crouches” and “thrum”).  4. Repeat the process using sections from
Gwendolyn Brooks’s “The Blackstone Rangers.” 5. Read Gwendolyn Brooks’s “We Real Cool.” If
you have time, you may play Ms. Brooks reciting the original poem:
(http://www.poetryfoundation.org/features/audioitem/2264). Then have the
students read Terrance Hayes’s “The Golden Shovel” aloud. Ask students to look
for anything unusual about the form and see if anyone notices that Brooks’s
poem, “We Real Cool,” is laid out vertically at the end of each of Hayes’s
lines. If no one figures it out without a hint, point out that it is “after
Gwendolyn Brooks” and explain what enjambment means (“unnatural” line breaks,
or “The running-over of a sentence or phrase from one poetic line to the next,
without terminal punctuation; the opposite of end-stopped” (per the Poetry
Foundation website). After a few minutes, point out the form that Hayes has
created. 6.
Finally, students should read at least three poems of their own from the Poetry
Out Loud website and make note of striking lines that include surprising word
choices. They should complete for homework, if need be.

2- You will need to create a worksheet for
at least one of those lessons.

3- At least one of the lessons must require
students to use a computer.
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