[Solution]Telecommunication Trends

Description of the Trends             Trends in telecommunication industry are based on continuous improvements and occurrence of transformative changes which leads to regular disruption of…

Description of
the Trends

            Trends in
telecommunication industry are based on continuous improvements and occurrence
of transformative changes which leads to regular disruption of the sector. Telecommunication
also referred as telecom refers to the exchange of information by electronic
means which includes phones, microwave, satellite, radio and fiber optics
through the use of voice, data and video transmission over wide area normally
long distances. The various communication trends taking place in the current
global set up are 5 G wireless, platform-based services, internet of things
(IoT), cloud computing, network security, data centers, premium content distribution,
augmented reality and virtual reality (Brito,2016). Other trends taking the industry by storm are
cross-industry alliances and infinite intelligence. All these trends have
greater interaction with the 5G technology due to its ability to offer higher
speeds for internets and its latency.

Wireless Technologies

is a new wireless mobile communication standard that offers many opportunities
for telecommunication companies to increase their stagnating revenue and
address the low internet speed offered by 4G and 3G. It has directionality,
unlike 4G towers that send data across the spectrum resulting in wastage of
power, energy and weaken the internet access. 5G communication has shorter
wavelengths which make antennas to be shorter without interference with the
direction of the wavelength (Al-Falahy
& Alani, 2017). It can be seen as a wireless connection that is
built specifically to allow the proliferation of devices which need a mobile
internet connection. It has a wide range of application which includes a
computer, phone, home appliances, door locking systems, security cameras, cars,
wearables like watches, dog collars and other inert devices which are connected
over the internet.

evolution of 5G according to the studies will result in about 20.8 billion
devices connection by 2020 where currently it stands at 6.4 billion devices
connected to the internet. Mobile technology has evolved over time to the
current 5G where G stands for generation. In it development 1 G marked the
start of wireless technology, 2G was a period during which text messages were
sent between cellular devices, 3G is the period where it was possible to make
phone calls, send text messages and browse over the internet. 4G implies
enhanced capability of 3G wireless where it is possible to download and upload
large video files without issues or hitches To make 4G internet speed to
increase long term evolution (LTE) was integrated to be part of its component.
The new variety of 4G became more convenient when it was compared with
competing for technology like Wi-Max. The emergence of 5G was built on the
foundation created by 4G LTE (Demestichas,
Georgakopoulos, Tsagkaris & Kotrotsos,2015). The 5G technology allows
people to send text messages, chat online using multiple devices like
Instagram, Facebook, Whatsapp, Skype, YouTube, and Twitter. It has made it
possible for people to browse the web with increased speed for data transfer
across the network.

has made it easier to upload and download ultra HD and 3 Dimension videos with
the increased number of devices connected. The increased download speed in 5G
is around 10 gigabits per second, unlike 4G which had a downloading speed of
1giga bits per second making full HD movie to be downloaded within a few
seconds. 5G separates network infrastructure namely hardware and software
making it possible for ad insertion, cashing and delivery of high-quality
content. 5G provides a competitive advantage to living broadcasting sites than
4G due to it’s faster, highly reliable, assured security and the agile wireless
technology. It provides superior mobile broadband which enhances the massive
internet of things, network capacity and performance in a highly diversified
context. 5G has proved in its trial phase across the globe that new radio
interphase technologies can deliver better throughput, latency and the capacity
needed. The 5G wireless has helped to meet the need for faster internet and
will play a leading role in next-generation IOT and M to M application such as virtual
reality and autonomous vehicles.

Involved in 5G Wireless

The technologies
adopted to facilitate the seamless working of 5G are meant to provide a more
flexible and dynamic service. The most common technologies being adopted in the
5G network include internet of things (IoT), VR/AR technology, cloud computing,
content development, network security, and data centers. In internet of things
technology, it depends on the level to which multiple devices are connected in
one platform where 5G provides a base for success. 5G IOT devices use narrow
bandwidth which supports thousands of activities conducted per device with
prolonged battery life with greater and efficient coverage even in challenging
areas at low cost (Galinina,
Pyattaev, Andreev, Dohler & Koucheryavy, 2015). For instance, using
smart home cameras connected to 5G networks is possible for a homeowner to know
the delivery of a product to his premises through mobile phone even when far from
the residence. IOT refers to the collection of smart devices that talk to each
other using wireless technology. It has made it possible to connect various
devices ranging from home appliances to health monitors when integrated into
the 5G network. It provides new territory for telecommunication companies and
mobile phone operators to provide their customers with superior quality
services in form of internet speed reliability. Internet of things has made it
possible for telecommunication companies to increase their revenue by shifting
from connectivity business to platform provider through undertaking
platform-based services.

virtual and augmented reality technologies are integrated into the 5 G network
it has made it be an ideal application as a result of increased thorough put
data transfer speed and efficiency. The technologies have increased their
popularity due to the ability to augment the user experience in online gaming,
play stations, autonomous driving and taking AR experience to the real
environment of the client. The technology, when applied in the 5G network, will
lead to a rise in content along the streaming services offered by various
companies like Netflix, Amazon Prime, Google YouTube. The adoption of 5 G
technology has made the telecom operators engage in new business models through
investments in software and platform development by merging with content
providers. The AR technologies have resulted in less delivery of voice and data
services with more emphasis being directed towards managing and providing
exclusive content.

has benefited cloud computing as a service model. The exponential growth in
traffic due to 5G technology will match the demand for scaling possibilities in
the mobile network. Clouds refer to the remote servers that host data storage
and applications. Cloud computing in the 5G network will save the expenditures
on information technology assets since the data will be accessed across the
globe by the users on the pay as you go basis (Hu, Fei, 2016). The 5G will make the cloud computing
to be more efficient, convenient and payment model from a geographically
independent third party supplier. It has enabled telecommunication companies to
have call center services which deriver cloud compatibilities, connectivity
management and leverage the network assets to enhance computing capacity to deliver
on-demand applications.

5G platform is making data centers to organize the process and store a large
amount of data which is disseminated through various facilities comprising
networked computers and storage. It will help to integrate cloud computing into
information technology operations, increased data management and improve
current infrastructure. It will make all telecoms operators providing BPO services
to deliver faster data with greater flexibility to satisfy their clients’ needs
and requirements. Security of the network will be essential to protect data
breaches through using of advanced techniques rather than data transport using
traditional means.5 G technology will make data to be processed in shift encrypted
from a niche play to more pervasive technology.

communications compatible with 5 G offers a higher frequency spectrum through
opening up and creating the possibility for a wide channel bandwidth of about
1-2 GHz. This poses serious challenges to handset developers since their
existing handsets are having maximum frequencies of 2 GHz with bandwidth of
between 10-20 MHz Considering that 5G will use frequencies above 50 GHz hence
posing challenges in terms of design of circuit, the technology applied and the
frequencies travelling short distances with absorption and obstacles
experienced through transmission (Kim,
Bang, Park, Kim, & Kim, 2016). Also through the allocation of
different spectrum among countries will be challenging. The new waveforms expected
in the 5G may not be compatible with the OFDM which has been very successful in
4G LTE and in other high data rate system. Several other waveforms which may be
compatible with the new 5G network includes GFDM which means generalized frequency
division multiplexing, filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) and universal filtered
multicarrier (UFMC). However, there exists no perfect waveform which exists but
when OFDM is used in the format of OFDMA it will provide excellent performance
in totality without it being too heavy on the processing levels required.  

technologies will need a variety of new access schemes and techniques which
will include OFDMA, SCMA, NOMA, MUSA, IDMA, and PDMA where OFDMA is the preferred
format. There is a need for massive MIMO with beam steering since MIMO is
compatible with various applications from LTE to Wi-Fi but with a limited
number of antennas. 5G opens room for using microwave frequencies which may
require several antennas on a single device which is a real possibility as a
result of antenna size and spacing due to the wavelength. It makes the data
beams to be steered efficiently providing performance enhancement. 5G
technology will work best on the network. It is achieved through the reduction
of the cell size providing an overall effective use of the available spectrum.
The technology being adopted ensures that the small cells are embedded in the
macro network and deployed as femtocells to assure satisfactory operations
hence the development of techniques that will facilitate additional of cells to
the network will not pose a  disruptive

technologies being adopted are analyzing the bandwidth and the frequencies
characteristics which can be outlined as follows; Post-WRC-15 IMT/5G status in the 700 MHz band,  Post-WRC-15 IMT/5G status in C-band (3.4-4.2
GHz) and Pre-WRC-19 IMT/5G status which targets Low and medium bands for 5G.In
the case of  24-47 GHz bands for 5G, it targets potential
fine-tuning between 24 and 28 GHz while 45-90
GHz bands are targeted for 5G. Likewise, there are IMT allocations targeting
channels with different frequencies in the ranges of 3.4 to 4.2 and 4.2 to 5.0 (Matinmikko-Blue & Latva-aho,2017).The early 5 G bands in Europe have the
current status of the 700 MHz with limited frequencies between 3.4 to 3.8 while
other bands have frequencies above 6 GHz. This will result in the propagation
of the spectrum characteristics with major deployments impacts. There is also
indoor and outdoor use of millimeter waves namely IDATE view with trials of
between 24 to 26 and 28 GHz. These technology being undertaken through
continuous research and trials are aimed to facilitate the 5G Network to be
more efficient in it applications among use using the internet of things platforms,
cloud computing technologies, intelligence gathering in the Manufacturing and
security sectors. This will assure deeper data security will great internet

Future Trends in 5 G network

            5G will result in a major shift in mobile
communication operations due to the integration of content development and
distribution beyond traditional communication due to the facilitated real-time
deployment of information. It will herald a new error where new radio access
network and a new core network will be necessary to ensure its smooth operation
of the new internet speed. It will lead to the development of new cells
composed of the dense network with interoperability across multiple devices
within a similar or different location for communication purposes. In future 5G
new radio and 5GNR will be used to access radio networks with different
elements where each compliments the smooth functioning of the ecosystem. 5G
wireless will lead to flexible technology which will be able to respond to
different, increasing and ever-changing consumer needs which will range from
small internet of things nod to high data users and finally stationary or
mobile platform users (Noh,
Song & Lee,2016). In the
5G next generation core network initial deployment of the technology will use
the core network of LTE or 3G networks. The future trends will need a new
network which is assured through 5G integration that will be able to handle
match higher data volumes with a low level of latency. Latency implies the time
taken by one packet of data to get from one forwarding point to another.

            5G will result in data revolution in
the communication industry where higher bandwidth and data transmission will be
characterized by a decline in transmission time. It will enable new application
integration like humanoid robots, connected cars, and IOT. In the future, there
will be a global network where latency for 5G will be less than 1 millisecond
when compared with the current latency of 4G that stands at 25 milliseconds.
The improved latency will result in a revolution of many industries across the
globe where we may have self-driving cars and robots and aided surgeries in the
medical professions. In order to handle multiple devices from the internet of
things and new applications with more than 100 times faster rate for 5 G
development of software-defined networks (SDNs) and network functions
virtualization (NFV) will be necessary. This will support flexibility and the
changes existent in the increased advanced terminals and intelligent machines
at network hedges. Software-defined networks will increase the communication
speed lowering latency which will lead to barrier removal.

            5G makes software to be executed
partly in hardware devices or independently or in the cloud or servers
clusters. It will make it possible for the network configuration and building
to be undertaken in a central location as a result of automation of the
processes unlike the manual control of the various connected computers in a
network. In the future efforts must be directed toward enlightening the global
community on the impact of 5G and how it will transform their lives. In future
5G will be applied in various issues affecting the masses like the development
of smart cities, bandwidth limitations, network architecture, standards and the
management of 5G networks (Rodriguez,
2015). In the IEEE5G initiative, there will need to
develop a framework that will engage all the stakeholders in the industry. This
will facilitate assimilation of innovation and technology which will be
compatible with the 5G devices. In the future, there will be more research in5G
network that will focus on application services, millimeter waves, mobile edge
cloud and security of the data in transit. It will be possible to have more researches
on how 5G technology can be deployed to gather security intelligence between
nations by use of advanced drones for surveillance purposes. The technology
will also be highly deployed in the medical sectors to undertake advanced
operations without physical incisions of the patient body where operations will
be conducted to the diseased area in case of a cancerous tumor. In the
artificial intelligence sector, they will be used to gauge the personality of
an individual when used to conduct psychometric tests. The technology will be
deployed in the future in the manufacturing sector where multiple research data
will be integrated into the manufacturing process using the internet of things
and cloud computing to facilitate the development of superior products.

Companies involved in 5G Technologies

            Several companies are involved in 5G with
differing interests in the area they are conducting research or are involved in
to make 5G a reality. Examples of these companies include AT and T which provides
private high-speed 5G services to companies for commercial purposes. Xilinx
which makes programmable chips for prototype 5G wireless gear while Key Sight
Technologies are involved in testing 5G equipment’s. Others involved are Ciena,
Lumentum, and Corning which are focused on deployment of fiber optic technology
compatible with the 5G platform. Verizon communication is involved in testing
5G wireless for high-speed internet services for residential homes especially
apartments building. Other companies in 5G works are Nokia, Ad Tran, CommScope
holdings, Analog devices, and LM Ericsson.

            Ericsson is involved in all
continents where it is working to make 5G global standards. It has developed a
5G radio prototype where it has conducted live field trials within their own
networks. In Korea, it partnered with Korea Telecom where it connected a car to
live 5 G networks in Seoul leading to faster downloads of high definition
videos. It also joined with Celcom Axiata Berhad where they conducted 28 GHz
band in Malaysia. It has also conducted first 5G trials in Bahrain which was
aimed at driving innovation for IOT application using next generation mobile technology.
Multiple companies have also teamed up to make 5G available in some cities like
Tallink, Telia, Ericsson and Intel have created 5G test and exploration sights
within the Tallinn port. This has facilitated delivery of internet to the
commercial and passenger cruise ships while in the port.

Regulatory Issues

            The challenges experienced by the
telecommunication companies arise in part from the regulations. For example,
when the European Union dropped down all roaming changes the telecommunication companies
revenue streams were affected. In developing the standards the focus has
shifted towards architecture and requirements ignoring the technological aspects.
The IEEE 802 Suite of standards focuses on Ethernet and Wi-Fi which are
universal enablers of wireless and localized internet access (Shim, & Yoo, 2015). In the frugal 5 G standards will help those
with 3 G technologies to easily translate to 5 G ineffective, interoperable and
standardized ways that will facilitate greater innovation across the network.
This standard looks at the various regional needs and requirements with a view
of making them attainable. There are other standards which have been agreed
upon as defined by ITU as part of IMT2020 and they focus on the overall performance
of 5 G wireless communication.

            The peak rate
parameter during the performance should be at least 20 gigabits per second
downlink and 10 gigabits per second uplink per mobile base station. This rate
represents a 20 times increase on the downlink when compared with the long-term
evolution (LTE). The connection density should be at least 1 million connected
devices per square kilometer since it will enable efficient operation of the
internet of things within the 5G bandwidth spectrum. The 5G mobility should
increase from 0 kilometers per hour to 500 kilometers per hour with high-speed
vehicle access to enable faster internet speed and content sharing across the
devices. The energy efficiency of 5G should be more efficient during spec calls
for radio interphases when under load and drop in too low energy mode
immediately when it is not in use. These standards are aimed at enhancing the
efficient use of energy and optimal uses of the resources. The performance standards
also place 5G spectral efficiency at 30 bits per HZ during downlink and 15 bits
per HZ during uplink. This is based on the assumptions that there exists 8
times 4 MIMO which means 8 spatial layers down and 4 spatial layers up.  The real world data rate expected for 5G
should be 100 Mbps for spec only calls for per-user download with an upload
speed of 50 Mbps (Hu
& Fei, 2006). The latency for 5G under ideal circumstances
offered to the users should be a maximum latency of 4 ms when compared with
20ms for LTE making it the ideal performance standard.

The global implication
of 5G Wireless Communications

            It will result
in competition between regions on bands to select where 5G will aggregate more
spectrum in three types of bands namely sub-1 GHz, sub-6 GHz and above 6 GHz.
It will result in trade between technical feasibility and consumer/ users’ case
requirements which will be based on the network propagation characteristics.  The 5G platform will take the mobile
technology to a new level where it will shape individuals lives regardless of
their geographical location due to living streaming of news ranging from
politics, health issues and entertainment industry like live music streaming
across devices. Being an upgrade of 4 G to better platforms it will increase
data volume transmission and speed with over 1000 times with over 100 times
more connected devices and 100% connectivity. It will open opportunities for
revenue growth for telecommunication operators which has been stagnating through
content development and distribution alliances.

            It will boost
the trustworthiness, scalability, security and universal mobility across the
communication industry boosting services which are connected to the internet of
things and the clouds. This will boost the live broadcasting industry due to
faster and more reliable wireless communication. The 5G technology will open
room for further research in 5G networks and applications in agribusiness,
energy sector through 5G controlled lights and better transportation systems
which are technologically controlled. The telecommunication industries will
have to invest in building infrastructure to provide for 5G secure networks
together with Wi-Fi networks to enable data transfer. The telecommunication
industry operators due to the emergence of 5G will have to deliver faster data
with more flexibility especially for those dealing with BPO services. The new
5G technology will need robust data protection techniques to cater for data breaches
which are common with network providers giving a new focus to data transport
without dependence on the traditional means. The multinational corporations and
local business enterprises will focus on product development, market
penetration as a result of the swift internet speed and real-time communication
with the client. This will create value in their product and service offerings.
Through the use of internet of things, it will provide a platform for customers
to be able to communicate with their services providers by application of
various devices without the need to visit their premises within a short span of
time. For example, an individual will be able to make shopping to an online
store and receive delivery after making payments while they are still within
their premises.

 In the health sector, it
will lead to better health research which will be evidence-based due to the
ease of availability of various research findings related to various health complications
facilitating advanced treatment to be accorded to the patient in a timely
manner. It will also improve the level of multidisciplinary interaction in the
medical field which will help in designing health monitors for patients using
mobile technology. In the security sector, it will result in the development of
sophisticated technologies which will facilitate crime detections and treats analysis
in a more speedy manner hence mitigating potential death.


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Technologies for 5G networks: challenges and opportunities. IT
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Demestichas, P., Georgakopoulos, A., Tsagkaris,
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Galinina, O., Pyattaev, A., Andreev, S.,
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Shim, B. S., & Yoo, D. H. (2015). Trends
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