[Solution]Facilitate learning for students with disabilities

Formative assessments Activity 1 1 You have just been employed as an education support worker in a high school. You have been told that it…

Formative assessments

Activity 1

1

You have just been employed as
an education support worker in a high school. You have been told that it is up
to you to identify the legislative requirements that you are required to comply
with. How would you go about doing this? (50–100 words)

Always ensure your
work is of the highest quality and standard possible.

 If a mistake occurs, accept responsibility
immediately and honestly and have a plan for fixing the error.

 • Study your work tasks as you complete them.

 If you are able to identify areas for improved
productivity, then suggest the ideas to your supervisor.

• Always apply
appropriate compliance documentation relevant to the work activity.

 • Always plan your work from an analysis of
the required outcomes i.e. standard required, available time and resources.

1. Educational
programme and practice

2. Children’s
health and safety

3. Physical
environment

4. Staffing
arrangements

5. Relationships
with children

6. Collaborative
partnerships with families and communities

7. Leadership and
service management

To assist schools
in providing a safe environment and a positive educational climate, volunteers
and visitors are asked to comply with this Code of Conduct. This code of
conduct has been formulated to clarify the type of conduct that is expected of
volunteers and visitors participating in programs and activities supporting
students in nsw high schools.

•             Observe safe work practices which
avoid unnecessary risks, apply reasonable instructions given by supervisors,
and report to the supervising staff and school administration any hazard or
hazardous practice in the workplace.

•             Report any problems as they arise
to your supervisor/contact person, including incidents, injury or property
damage.

•             Avoid waste or extravagance and
make proper use of the resources of the school/Directorate.

2

You hear a colleague calling a
student with an arm amputation, lefty. When you tell your colleague that this
could be construed as being offensive they tell you that they are only having a
joke and tell you to lighten up. What would you tell them about their
legislative responsibilities? (50–100 words)

I would report to
workplace bulling. These are not issues that concern only children and young
people. Violence, harassment and bullying can occur in a number of different
environments, including in workplaces, care facilities and in the community,
and can affect people of all ages and backgrounds.

Bullying can also
take place in cyberspace: over the internet and on mobile phones. New
technologies enable the spread of information, ideas and images to large
numbers of people very quickly. There are many challenges in protecting people
from violence, harassment and bullying in cyberspace.

We all have a
responsibility to create a safe environment by standing up against violence,
harassment and bullying. If bystanders take safe and appropriate action to stop
bullying, we can all be a part of the solution

Activity 2

Create
an anti-bullying policy and procedure document that could be used by workers
when students with a disability are bullied.

Your policy should include:

a reference to
relevant legislation/ Actsa definition of
bullyinga rationaleprocedures for
dealing with bullying

You might like to look at
examples of school bullying policies. Examples can be found on the internet.

Anti Bullying
Policy

Legislation

Commonwealth
legislation relevant to bullying, harassment, discrimination and violence
include:

•             Disability Discrimination Act 1992

•             Human Rights and Equal Opportunity
Commission (HREOC) Act 1986

•             Racial Discrimination Act 1975

•             Racial Hatred Act 1995

•             Sex Discrimination Act 1984.

What is Bullying

• Bullying is the
deliberate intention to harm someone who does not have the power to stop it.

• Bullying,
harassment or any form of discrimination, is immoral and can be unlawful
because it interferes with the right of a person to feel safe and valued as a
member of a community.

• Bullying takes
many forms. It can be:

– Face-to-face
such as fighting, pushing, taunting, insulting, embarrassing, intimidating and
invading personal space, AND Behind-the-back such as writing threatening or
offensive messages, sending distressing emails and writing anonymous notes that
are hurtful.

– Done
individually such as a person mocking or teasing someone, AND It can be done as
a group by such means as social exclusion or hate group recruitment.

– Physical, AND
Psychological.

– Sexual harassment
which involves behaviours such as unwanted sexual touching, inappropriate
joking, exposure, making sexual advances or demeaning someone due to their
sexual orientation, AND Racial harassment which involves behaviours such as
social exclusion, teasing, What is Bullying? taunting and threats based on
another person’s race.

– The causing of
hurt by traditional methods such as punching, kicking and spreading hurtful
rumours, AND The causing of hurt by contemporary means such as cyber bullying,
sexting, engaging in identity theft or by trashing someone on social networking
sites.

Rationale:

At St Catherines
Primary School strives to provide a positive culture where bullying is not
accepted, and in so doing, all will have the right of respect from others, the
right to learn or to teach, and a right to feel safe and secure in our school
environment.

Procedures of
dealing with bullying?

For Students

What should you do
if you feel you are being bullied?

•             Tell the person that their
behaviour upsets or offends you. They may not realise this.

•             Be assertive – say “no”
like you mean it.

•             Use your anti-bullying shield.

•             Ask an adult for support – speak
with a teacher or parent with whom you feel comfortable.

What could you do
if you see or hear others being bullied?

•             Support the person being bullied
and encourage them to report it.

•             Speak to a member of Staff about
it.

•             If you are confident, speak to the
bully about the problems they are causing.

What should you do
if you are a bully?

•             Think about other’s points of view

•             Think about why you are behaving
this way

•             Talk to someone you respect about
your behaviour and possible ways to change it

•             Think about the effect bullying has
on the person being bullied

What will the
school do?

St Catherines
Primary School is a safe and caring school offering a supportive environment
that is focussed on resolution, rather than finding or assigning blame. The aim
is to find solutions in a non-confrontational manner that enables the bullied
student and the bully to co-exist. To ensure this, the school will:

•             take a proactive approach to the
prevention of bullying by educating the school community

•             develop procedures to deal with
bullying incidents

•             listen to all students involved in
incidents of bullying behaviour and treat those involved with respect and
dignity

•             communicate significant concerns to
parents

Activity 3

1

How can senior staff help
workers to be aware of the legislative requirements they are required to comply
with? (100–150 words)

-understand,
promote and comply with health and safety policies and procedures

-engage with your
workers in an open honest and meaningful way to ensure they understand what
safety standards are expected of them

-encourage
feedback and communication channels between you and your workers and you and
senior leaders

-ensure that WHS
practitioners and senior leaders are made aware of issues or concerns on
safety, especially —    where you or
your staff identify hazards or flaws in any operational procedures

-demonstrate your
commitment to health and safety and model safe work practices to your workers

-put into practice
what you expect workers to follow, the standard you set is the one they will
follow

 –Understand and adhere to own work role and
responsibilities 

-Legislation
relating to the education sector, the education support workers role and key
requirements of each 

– Integration of
legislation to form legislative framework for the education environment -

 -Curriculum and curriculum framework  –

-Organisations
policies and procedures for responding to legislative issues  –

-Duty of care
responsibilities as applies to non teaching staff -

– Safe working
practices  –

-Potential hazards
and risks for students resulting from breaches of relevant legislation or
policy 

– Key requirements
of Industrial awards 

-Relevant code/s
of ethics 

– Equal employment
opportunity and equity and diversity principles

Activity 4

1

You hear another person refer
to a student as suffering from spina bifida. What would you tell them
about the need to use accurate and appropriate language? (50 words)

I would tell the
child that it is not appropriate to discuss and speak about another child
disability amongst other students. That we shouldn’t be labeling children as an
individual, that we should be showing positive attitudes towards and around
others that are suffering from a disability to support them and encourage
confidence and positive attitude.

2

Provide five examples of
discriminatory or insulting language that might be used to describe a person
who has a disability. Do not limit your responses to those terms used in the
text. Why should education support workers refrain from using terms like these?
(100–150 words)

1…A derogatory
label is an offensive term used to denote an individual person or group of
people. They often have unforeseen consequences, adversely affecting not only
the person targeted by the label but also society at large

2…Offensive
language-Sometimes classroom discussions and debates over particular topics get
heated, and participants may pepper their responses with expletives. Such
language may be offensive to others so it should not be used in the classroom

3..Trivialising
language=Language that trivialises or denigraes others and their experiences
suggests that the other person is inferior. Trivialising language often reinforces
differences in power between the ‘in-group’ and the ‘out-group’.

4..refrain
from-Supporting individuals with brain injury can be demanding and
stressful.  You need to take care of
yourself to prevent burn-out.  Ways to
take care of yourself might include:  Have a range of activities outside your
work that you enjoy e.g. social, recreational or leisure – don’t make work your
whole life.

5..Plan for
regular breaks and holidays from work or even from particular clients.  Be
aware of signs of tension and stress (psychological and physical), and
plan   relaxing activities that make you
feel great. .  Give yourself permission to have emotions and feelings and to
express them in the right situation.

Reviewed

Activity 5

1

Why is it important to include
students with a disability in group activities? Provide six reasons.

1. Students with
disabilities add to the diversity of the classroom. Diversity enriches our
lives. Biodiversity adds new medicines, cultural diversity provides new ideas,
and what I’m calling ‘’neurodiversity’’ adds new possibilities that make for a
more interesting classroom. How boring it would be if every student looked and
acted the same in school!

2. Students with
disabilities bring new strengths into the classroom.

.

3. Students with
disabilities help promote a climate of giving in the classroom. .

4. Students with
disabilities do better when in a setting where more is expected . In an
inclusive classroom, children with disabilities have the opportunity to
experience what it’s like to be considered normal enough to learn in a regular
classroom environment, they are inspired by the positive performances of their
peers, and they rise to the higher expectations of their teachers.

5. Students with
disabilities challenge us to provide better ways to educate ALL kids. To create
an effective inclusion classroom, educators need to build a learning
environment that provides a variety of ways .

6. Children with
disabilities’ brains develop stronger neural connections in a richer learning environment.

2

The teacher has set a small
group/ cooperative learning task for students to complete. They have been asked
to write a short script and perform it for the rest of the class. You want one
group to include a student with a disability in the group process but are
worried that this might not happen. What could you do to encourage students to
include the child with a disability in their group work? (100–150 words)

In this instance,
students may not want to work in a group learning task with a child who has a
learning ability because it may feel like they might not achieve as much, be
impatient or be able to perform the task in time. It is important to explain
that each child is an individual and should be treated the same as everyone
else, we should not discriminate and allow inclusion to help others and work
together. Educators can do the following to help inclusion

-Talk to students
about limits for behaviour (ie the things they should and should not do)

-Invite students
to reflect on the feelings of others (eg how students with disabilities might
feel when they are excluded, bullied or teased)

-Foster
friendships between students (eg encouraging students to invite children with
disabilities into their play)

-Provide
experiences that allow students to collaborate and solve problems together.

-Encourage
students to listen to others and see things from their perspective.

-Encourage
students to appreciate and acknowledge the strengths and talents of others and
not just the disability.

It is important
that educators refrain themselves from using this language towards and about
children as it is a part of discriminating and role modelling negative
attitude, allowing other students to follow in the footsteps of encouraging
bullying or discrimination.

Activity 6

1

A student wants to talk to you
about the difficulty they are having in understanding the novel the class is
reading. You are really busy writing a report about another student’s progress
that the classroom teacher has asked for. What should you do to ensure the
interaction with the student is respectful? (50–100 words)

• Acknowledge all
children as unique individuals, each with distinctive strengths, abilities and
needs, personalities and temperaments;

• Acknowledge the
child in the context of their families and demonstrate respect for their
backgrounds, cultures, traditions and life circumstances;

• Reflect on their
image of the child and how this impacts on what they do with and for children
on a daily basis;

• Support
children’s secure attachment through consistent, responsive and nurturing
relationships;

• Relate to all
children in a warm and friendly manner in a way that demonstrates genuine
interest in them;

• Provide
opportunities and support for children to express their thoughts, ideas and
feelings;

• Spend time
interacting and engaging with children in sustained conversation in a
meaningful and respectful way;

• Acknowledge and
respond sensitively to children’s cues and signals in a way that demonstrates
an understanding of their communication styles and preferences; and

• Support children
in times of change and bridge the gap between the familiar and the unfamiliar.

Respect for
children can also be seen in the way educators view children and how they
include them in decision-making processes. Educators make many hundreds of
decisions throughout the day. It is important to ensure decisions are made with
the child’s best interests in mind.

2

A student tells you that they
really like one of their classmates and would like to ask them out on a date
but feel like they would be turned down because they use a wheelchair. You
think that if you told the classmate about the student’s interest in them the
classmate would agree to go on a date with them. Is this a situation where
confidentiality should not apply? (50–100 words)

-I think
confidentiality should still be applied in this case, but the name should not
be mentioned however, his intension should be mentioned as a general view point
or an observation made by myself that the pair could look good together and
should go on a date. In other words, I would act as a match maker rather than
naming the student and his thoughts.

Activity 7

1

You open the door of a
classroom and notice a strong smell of gas. What should you do to ensure students’
safety is not put at risk in the learning environment? (50–100 words)

The first think i
would evacuate the class outdoors in and emergency area. Call the emergency
siren in the school for help in the office. Contact the emergency services for
help and ambulance just in case there is a reaction to the gas to a children.
The whole school had been evacuated due to a gas leak.  So they put the kids in the school bus, right
beside the school.  Maybe 3 feet away.

= You can also
call the APA Group Natural Gas Information Hotline on 1800 898 220, just to
double-check that there isn’t a supply outage in your area

2

You notice that the legs of a
chair used by students in the learning environment are cracked. You decide that
this does not pose any safety risk to students. A student sits on the chair and
the leg cracks. The student falls off the chair and breaks their collarbone.
What might happen as a result? (50–100 words)

-firstly, i would
provide a first aid to student and put a student in a safe place to sit and
rest. Then, look into the chair and contact the maintence department and fill
in the form for fixing. Also, speak to 
the teacher why she didn’t get the chair fixed when it was broken. After
the incident all the  furniture needs to
be checked and reported if its broken. Also, contact the parents of the student
for injury and call ambulance to see a doctors. Apply a ice pack to help a ease
a pain.

Activity 8

Indicate
whether the rights of students are being upheld in the situations described in
the table.

Situation

Upheld/ not upheld

A student is told that they cannot
go to school because they have an intellectual disability.

not upheld

A student with a disability is not
allowed to interact with other students.

not upheld

A student is given the opportunity
to have input into what their learning goals should be.

upheld

Personal information about a
student with a disability is discussed with other people who do not work with
the student.

not upheld

A student with a disability is
given a chance to make a decision about how their learning should be
delivered.

not upheld

A student with a disability is
referred to in derogatory terms.

not upheld

A student with a disability is
given access to an education support worker to help them to succeed in
schoolwork.

upheld

A student with a disability is
excluded from a lesson because they accidentally broke some equipment by
running into it with their wheelchair when entering a classroom.

not upheld

A student with a disability is
excluded from accessing prayer rooms in the school because their wheelchair
takes up too much room.

not upheld

Workers decide that a student with
a disability will not be able to learn and therefore do not attempt to teach
them.

not upheld

An education support worker acts as
an advocate for a student with a disability.

upheld

Activity 9

1

Provide an example of a goal
statement that might be set by teachers. You cannot use examples provided in
the text. (50 words)

Goal:

Find out the
distance between 2 countries (India and Dubai) using coordinates

Targeted Learning
Outcome:

To identify the
distance between these two coutnries

Condition: Using
coordinates and geographical  tools

Criterion: Follow
formulas and instructions correctly for a successful outcome

2

A teacher has asked you to
gather information about a student’s goals that will help them to set
appropriate goals for the student. What might you do to achieve this? (50–100
words)

This can be done
in 5 stages

• Identifying
personal learning goals (and strategies to achieve them).

• Monitoring
progress

• Reflecting on
learning.

• Reporting on
progress made.

• Refining or
developing new goals.

Educators can help
students to reflect on their learning by having conversations with students
about learning; they might discuss:

• Achievements and
challenges from the previous term/ semester/ unit of work

• Students
strengths and areas for improvement, both in and out of class

• Their goals for
the short and long term

Activity 10

1

What type of information might
you be directed by the teacher to gather and record? (50 words)

As a support
worker, you will be directed to record data of a child with a learning
disability that might relate to the student’s stage of development, their
disability, their success in completing class work, medications taken

by the student or
their specific needs. This information will then be recorded in a certain
process.

2

How might information that you
have gathered and recorded be stored? (100–150 words)

-As teachers we
have a lot of experience gathering information about our students and using it
to make decisions. Decisions that are based on data help us to create the ideal
learning conditions for our students. Many of our decisions can be made without
collecting data systematically. However, at times a strategic data-based
decision making process may be needed. This is especially true for teachers who
often deal with many challenges that require their attention all at one time.

-A record and
documented account of something that happen. For children’s programs, records
may include written entries such a anecdotal observations, running records,
analyses of events, photos example of children’s work or jottings of children’s
question and conversations and kept in a confidential file or data server.

3

What do you think might happen
if information is collected but no record of information gathered is created?
(50–100 words)

Confidentiality:
Information in these records of a person’s life will be very personal in
nature. They should therefore be kept in a secure location where only those
people who need to view the records can do so. The location where they are kept
needs to be secure and access restricted.

Then, their is no
record of the incident if you have to go back to it. Because the date/time is
always should always be recorded in the accident folder for the parents and
directors.

– Then they  is no previous reference to the information
and person can’t go back to solve a problem. So it will be very hard to help a
person.

Activity 11

While
a range of disabilities have been outlined and discussed, there are many more
that you might encounter when working with students to help them achieve
learning goals. Conduct some research of your own and write a one page summary
of the condition spina bifida. Describe its cause, effect and prevalence.

What is Soina
Bifida

Spina Bifida is
the most common permanently disabling birth defect in the United States.

Spina Bifida
literally means “split spine.”

Spina Bifida
happens when a baby is in the womb and the spinal column does not close all of
the way. Every day, about 8 babies born in the United States have Spina Bifida
or a similar birth defect of the brain and spine.

Cause of Spina
Bifida

Doctors aren’t
certain what causes spina bifida. As with many other problems, it appears to
result from a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors, such as a
family history of neural tube defects and folate deficiency.

Symptoms of spina
bifida

• reduced
sensation in the lower body, legs and feet, leading to the possibility of burns
and pressure sores

• a degree of
paralysis of the lower body and legs, causing walking difficulties or inability
to walk

• different
degrees and types of urinary incontinence

• different
degrees and types of faecal bowel incontinence

• some sexual
dysfunction, particularly related to penile erection and ejaculation

• deformities of
the spine – commonly scoliosis, where the spine bends into an ‘S’ shape

• cord tethering,
where the spinal cord sticks to the area of the original lesion and becomes
stretched

• Arnold Chiari
malformation – an abnormality of the back of the brain and upper spinal cord
which can cause disturbance of breathing, swallowing, eye movement and fluid
flow leading to hydrocephalus

• learning
difficulties.

Effects of spina
bifida

• Walking and
mobility problems

• Orthopedic
complications

• Bowel and
bladder problems.

• Accumulation of
fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus)

• Shunt
malfunction

• Infection in the
tissues surrounding the brain (meningitis).

• Tethered spinal
cord

• Sleep-disordered
breathing

Prevalence of
Spina Bifida

• Each year, about
1,500 babies are born with spina bifida. [Read article summary]

• Hispanic women
have the highest rate of having a child affected by spina bifida, when compared
with non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women. Data from 12 state-based
birth defects tracking programs from 1997-2007 were used to estimate the total
number of pregnancies affected by spina bifida compared to the total number of
live births (also called the prevalence of spina bifida) for each racial/ethnic
group:

o Hispanic: 3.80
per 10,000 live births

o Non-Hispanic
black or African-American: 2.73 per 10,000 live births

o Non-Hispanic
white: 3.09 per 10,000 live births

Activity 12

1

You have been asked to arrange
some resources in a display for students with vision impairment. The education
program being delivered is based on the theme of beaches. What resources might
you use? Provide five examples.

• Powerpoint
presentations

• Model 3D objects

• Pictures


Charts/maps/graphs


Worksheets/handouts

2

You are responsible for
organising and maintaining a data projector used to support the delivery of
education programs. What might you need to do to ensure the resource is
maintained in working order? (50–100 words)

– The children
age/ years group.

– The challenge
for us is to embrace, and respond to, not just the technology, but the
extraordinary pace of change. We can’t underestimate how rapidly things are
changing and we need to make sure no opportunity passes us by to improve
learning outcomes.  

Most importantly,
we need a system that caters for differences between learners: those who are
racing ahead with new technology and those who are racing to keep up with it;
those who have a passion for particular areas; those who are engaged with
learning, and those we need to halt disengagement.

– Students and
teachers have access to smart devices, where possible, capable of connection to
the internet, and 

 future
infrastructure be targeted to support disadvantaged students in and outside
school, enabling broadband access to the internet and fast wireless
connectivity.

Activity 13

1

What social barriers might a
student with autism spectrum disorder face? Base your response on your own
knowledge or research conducted. Your response should be half a page to a page
in length.

Individuals with
ASD experience difficulties with verbal and non-verbal communication, social
awareness and interaction, and activities and interests.

Students with
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often demonstrate individual differences within
social interaction. However, every student with ASD is motivated to socialise
with others on some level.

The difficulties
with social interactions experienced by students with ASD may present as a
barrier to accessing learning in the following ways:

• difficulties
with recognising and using common social gestures and body language

• difficulties
initiating social interactions with peers

• difficulties
sustaining interactions with others and maintaining friendships

• a preference for
learning social skills via routines, rules and repetition

• difficulties
noticing, applying or responding to the ‘unwritten’ or ‘grey’ rules of social
interaction such as knowing how to interrupt and appropriate conversation
topics

• difficulties
appropriately requesting equipment and turns within interactions and activities

• difficulties
consistently using social greetings and following social routines such as
lining up, waiting, sharing and turn-taking

• some need to
participate in solitary or preferred tasks each day/session in order to
maintain calm and regulate their emotions

• a significant
delay in the development and application of Theory of Mind (ToM) concepts (the
idea that others have individual thoughts, feelings and beliefs) and the
concept that their behaviour has an effect upon others

• differences in
motivation such as a preference to access favoured activities or items despite
peers not sharing that same interest.

The ability to
understand, apply and express information, preferences and needs influences
engagement with the curriculum and learning environment.

All students with
a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have a significant communication
impairment which may present as barriers to learning in the following ways:

• difficulties
comprehending oral language (especially whole class or individual verbal
instructions and information)

• difficulties
comprehending written language (many students with ASD demonstrate reading
comprehension levels at a level significantly lower than their reading ability)

• difficulties
understanding abstract concepts and language and a tendency to apply language
or concepts literally rather than generally

• difficulties
consistently producing functional language in both verbal and written modes

• difficulties
imitating the actions, words and behaviours of others (learning from models)

• difficulties
understanding the meaning of and using body language and gestures when
receiving and delivering information

• difficulties
attending to the main source of information and/or their communication partner

• difficulties
shifting attention to different modes of information (e.g. from screen to
teacher when teacher makes a comment) and/or sustaining attention

• a preference for
using the same patterns or routines for interactions regardless of the context
or audience such as repeating set phrases which appear contextually correct at
some times and not at others

• a tendency to
mask comprehension difficulties through learning routines and preferred
patterns of presentation

• difficulties
generalising language or skills learnt to new or varied tasks, social
situations or environments.

2

What educational barriers might
a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face? Base your response on your
own knowledge or research conducted. Your response should be half a page to a
page in length.

Emotions and
children with autism spectrum disorder

Children with
autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often find it hard to:

• recognise facial
expressions and the emotions behind them

• copy or use
emotional expressions

• understand and
control their own emotions

• understand and
interpret emotions – they might lack, or seem to lack, empathy with others.

From an early age,
children with ASD often pay less attention to other people’s emotional
behaviour and faces.

They don’t tend to
point out interesting things to other people, or respond to interesting things
that others point out to them. This is called social or joint attention, and
the lack of it is one of the early warning signs for ASD. Preschoolers with ASD
continue to find shared attention difficult and often won’t use words to direct
someone else’s attention.

Children with ASD
often also find it hard to use emotion to manage social interactions. They
might show less concern for others and less ability to comfort others or share
emotions. They might misread situations and respond with emotions that are off
the mark.

For example, a
child with ASD might not comfort a sibling who falls over, or might laugh
because he doesn’t recognise that the child is hurt.

Face perception

Children with ASD
might have trouble understanding other people’s emotions because of the way
they scan faces.

People with ASD
tend to scan faces in a more random way than typically developing people. They
spend less time looking at the eyes and more time focusing on the mouth. This
means the information they get from a person’s face tells them less about what
that person is feeling.

Activity 14

1

What are the characteristics
of a good Education Adjustment Profile (EAP)? (150 words)

What is an
Education Adjustment Program Profile?

An EAP Profile is
a document used to record how often the school is currently making adjustments
so that the opportunities for students with disabilities to have access to;
participation in; and achievement in education are maximised. The EAP Profile
records adjustments in the following areas:

Curriculum

Communication

Social
Participation/Emotional Well-being

Health and
Personal Care

Safety

Learning
Environment/Access

Who completes the
EAP Profile?

Teachers and
specialists who support the student should record the adjustments they are
making. Parents are central to the process, and where possible, the student
should also participate.

What happens in
the profile meeting?

-The Parent/Carers
Role

As a parent, I can
expect to work with the school in understanding the education adjustments in
these areas that are appropriate for my child.

I would expect to
be involved in decisions about these adjustments long before they are recorded
on the EAP Profile.

I can ask to have
a copy of the EAP Profile before the meeting. I may find this useful in helping
me feel more comfortable at the meeting.

I can take as many
family members or friends with me to the meeting as I need, to support me in
the process

2

An EAP is being developed for
a student with an intellectual disability. The student is capable of expressing
their opinions and has identified some of their needs when you have worked for
them. For instance, they have told you that when they are working out maths
problems they sometimes get the numbers all mixed up in their head. The parents
do not want the child to be involved in the development of the EAP. What might
you say to them to respectfully change their stance? (50–100 words)

-understand that
children’s learning is dynamic, complex and holistic

• understand that
children demonstrate their learning in different ways

 • start with what’s present—not what’s
absent—and write about what works for the child.

-The underlying
principles of the strength-based approach include:

.all the children
have strengths and abilities

• children grow
and develop from their strengths and abilities • the problem is the problem—the
child is not the problem

valuing everyone
equally and focusing on what the child can do rather than what the child cannot
do

 • describing learning and development
respectfully and honestly

• building on a child’s
abilities within their zones of proximal and potential development

 • acknowledging that people experience
difficulties and challenges that need attention and support

• identifying what
is taking place when learning and development are going well, so that it may be
reproduced, further developed and pedagogy strengthened is

Activity 15

1

A student wants to know what
will be discussed during a profile meeting. What would you tell them? (50–100
words)

Arrange first
meeting with a prospective mentor.

___ Explain your
goals for meetings and ask how confidentiality should be handled.

___ Discuss with
your mentor what you both perceive as the boundaries of the mentoring
relationship.

___ Review your
current experience and qualifications.

—— Record these
on a professional development plan 

___ Discuss and
record your immediate and long-term goals

—–. Explore
useful professional development experiences in view of these goals.

___ Discuss and
record any issues that may affect the mentoring relationship such as time,,
lack of confidence, or newness to the role, etc.

___ Arrange a
meeting schedule with your mentor (try to meet at least once a quarter).

—— Record
topics discussed and feedback given at each meeting.

——-Request
that meeting records be kept confidential and in a safe place.

_ Encourage your
mentor to reflect regularly with you on your goals, achievements, and areas for
improvements

___ Amend your
mentoring action plan as needed by focusing on your developing needs.

2

Why should you gather data
during the implementation of a program? (50–100 words)

Data should be
collected throughout the implementation stage to assess students progress and
program effectiveness. Using the information gathered throughout the
implementation stage, the students achievement of learning outcomes can be
evaluated as can the programs effectiveness in meeting the students needs.
Evaluation allows for the identification of areas where changes need to be made
to the EAP to better support students progress and to ensure that the program
continues to be effective.

Summative assessment 1

Question 1

What
is a procedure and how do procedures differ from work practices? (100 words)

A procedure is a
specific statement that states how something should be down in the workplace
step by step. Procedures should be in writing to provide clarity and certainty
at the workplace and demonstrate compliance. Recruitment procedures, for
example, would specify the steps that need to be taken to obtain permission to
recruit new staff, advertise the position, screen candidates, set up selection
panels, write interview questions, conduct the interview, select an applicant,
and design an employment contract and so on. Procedures differ from practices
as a practice unwritten, unofficial and may be adapted from procedures or might
exist where

there are no
policies and procedures. Practices are what actually happens in the workplace.
Often they will be inconsistent and inefficient, although sometimes they could
highlight shortcomings in official procedures.

Question 2

What
is mandatory reporting? Are individuals who are not mandated to report
suspicions of child abuse precluded from making a report? (100–150 words)

A mandatory
reporting is legislative requirements for selected class of people to report
suspected child abuse and neglect to government authorities. A mandatory report
is made when a child has shown signs or have verbally said they are being abused,
wheatherits physically,sexually,mentally or emotionally.This report is to be
made if a reasonable suspicion that a child has suffered, is suffering or is at
an unacceptable risk of suffering significant harm caused by physical or sexual
abuse,and may not have a parent able and willing to protect them.

If you not a
mandated to report you may still make a non imminent suspected risk of
significant harm to the child protection and Helpline either by using
eReporting or by a phone

Question 3

Why
is it wrong to label a person with a disability as being blind or deaf or
autistic? What terms should be used instead? (50–100 words)

Words have power.
Negative language leads to harmful action, discrimination, abuse, negative
stereotypes, disenfranchisement, and violence; this is true along racial,
gender, sexual orientation, and disability lines, and more. Words and labels
can cause others to think that people with intellectual and developmental
disabilities are not able to achieve the things that others can achieve.

Be sensitive when
choosing words you use. Here are a few guidelines on appropriate language.

• Recognize that
people with disabilities are ordinary people with common goals for a home, a
job and a family.

• Talk about
people in ordinary terms.

• Never equate a
person with a disability such as referring to someone as retarded or epileptic.
These labels are simply medical diagnoses.

• Use People First
Language to tell what a person HAS, not what a person IS.

• Emphasize
abilities not limitations. Say, for example, “a man walks with
crutches” instead of, “he is crippled.”

• Avoid negative
words that imply tragedy such as afflicted with, suffers, victim, prisoner and
unfortunate

Question 4

Provide
five examples of ways that activities can be changed to support the learning of
students with a disability.

-• Maintain an
organized classroom and limit distractions. For students with special needs,
maintaining a healthy balance of structure and unstructured processes is
important. Allow students with special needs to change their work area while
completing homework or studying and assign tasks that involve moving around the
room. For students with special needs and learning disabilities, hearing
instructions or following directions can be made difficult if there are too
many distractions. Schedule breaks throughout the day and seat students with
special needs in an area of the classroom that limits distractions.

• Use music and
voice inflection. When transitioning to an activity, use a short song to finish
up one task and move to another. Students with special needs might also respond
well to varied voice inflection and tone, so use a mixture of loud, soft, and
whisper sounds. Using proper pronunciation and sometimes slightly exaggerating
proper speech will help a child model the same principles.

• Break down
instructions into smaller, manageable tasks. Students with special needs often
have difficulty understanding long-winded or several instructions at once. For
children with learning disabilities, it is best to use simple, concrete
sentences. You might have to break down a step into a few smaller steps to
ensure your students with special needs understand what you are asking.

• Use
multi-sensory strategies. As all children learn in different ways, it is
important to make every lesson as multi-sensory as possible. Students with
learning disabilities might have difficulty in one area, while they might excel
in another. For example, use both visual and auditory cues. Create
opportunities for tactile experiences. You might need to use physical cues,
such as a light touch, when a student might get distracted or inattentive

• Give students
with special needs opportunities for success. Children with learning
disabilities often feel like they do not succeed in certain areas, but
structuring lessons that lead to successful results is a way to keep them
motivated. Provide immediate reinforcement for accomplishments, be consistent
with rules and discipline, correct errors and reward students when they make
these corrections themselves, explain behavioral expectations, and teach and
demonstrate appropriate behaviors rather than just expecting students with
special needs to pick them up

Question 5

What
is an Education Adjustment Profile (EAP)? Why should education support workers
be included in discussions about the implications of the disability on the EAP?
(150 words)

The department’s
Education Adjustment Program (EAP) is a process for identifying and responding
to the educational needs of students with disability who require significant
education adjustments related specific impairments including

 Autism Spectrum
Disorder (ASD)

 Intellectual
Impairment (II)

 Physical
Impairment (PI)

 Vision
Impairment (VI)

 Hearing
Impairment (HI)

 Speech Language
Impairment (SLI)

 Social Emotional
Disorder (SED)

An EAP supports
schools to:

• understand and
meet their obligations to make reasonable adjustments for students with
disability

• identify
students (from Prep-Year 12) who meet criteria for the EAP categories

• report the
significant education adjustments that are currently in place to address the
educational needs of these students

Adjustments are
made for students with disabilities to enable them to access the curriculum
achieve curriculum s and participate in school life. I think that it’s
important for support workers to be included into discussions about an
implication of a child’s EAP as the support worker is the one person that
workers closely with the child a need.knows strengths,weaknesses and capabilities.

Question 6

What
is dyslexia? Identify 10 symptoms of dyslexia. What can be done to support
students with dyslexia? (300–350 words)

What is dyslexia?

Dyslexia is a life
long condition that makes it difficult for people to read.It’s the most common
learning issues,although it’s not clear what percentage of kids have it.
Dyslexia is mainly a problem with reading accurately and fluently.kids with
dyslexia may have trouble answering questions about something they’ve read. But
when it’s read to them  they may have no
difficulty at all.

Symptoms

– delayed speech

-problems
pronouncing words

-difficulty
learning rhymes and rhyming words

-problems with
learning shapes and colours

-difficulty
learning how to write their own name

-difficulty with
retelling a story in the correct order in which events took place

-being slow to
learn the alphabet

-difficulty
reading a single word

-frequently
confusing certain letters when writing

-frequently
writing words backwards

Students with
dyslexia can be supported by

1. one-on-one
tutoring from a specialist educator

2. -Make
personalized books and stories with the student’s name and photos.
Alternatively, have him or her dictate a story and draw pictures, which an
adult can then transcribe and bind with a cover.

3. Increase print
awareness by asking your student to look for everything he/she can find with
writing (i.e. McDonald’s sign, labels, and packages).

4. Provide
multisensory experiences for students related to each book that they read, such
as using stories and coloring pages (available with a story teller guide).

5. Choose rhyming
books with high repetition of words and phrases.

6. Dramatically
pause to allow students to fill in the refrain as you are reading.

7. Play sound
matching games. For example, say, “Let’s think of as many things as we can that
start with Mmmm.” then  student might say
“Mouse, moo, milk.” If a student has difficulty, give him or her clues. Say:
“We drink mmmmm.” Wait two seconds and then provide the answer (“milk”).

8. Increase the
repertoire of shapes

a student draws to
include circles, triangles, squares, and various facial features, such as eyes
and a mouth.

9. Increase the
repertoire of letters your student writes to include all the letters in the
alphabet and numbers up to 10.

10. Guide a
student’s drawing and writing by placing your hand on top of his or her hand.
Gradually fade the level of assistance.

Question 7

What
is dyscalculia? Identify 10 symptoms of dyscalculia. How can students with dyscalculia
be supported? (300–350 words)

Dyscalculia is a
term referring to a wide range of life-long learning disabilities involving
maths.

It includes all
types of maths problems ranging from an inability to understand the meaning of
numbers, to an inability to apply mathematical principles to solve problems.
Students with dyscalculia have problems understanding basic number concepts,
such as counting, adding, subtracting, multiplying and difficulty with more
complex mathematical functions.

Symptoms of
dyscalculia include poor sense of direction, poor time management skills, poor
mental math ability and poor ability to self-check work.

– learning the
meaning of numbers

– recognising/
reading numbers

– learning to
count

– matching numbers
with amounts

– sorting shapes
by shape, size or colour

– recognising
groups and patterns

– with concepts
such as smaller/ bigger or shorter/ taller

– solving simple
maths problems

– remembering and
retaining basic maths facts

– writing maths
facts down

– reading what is
written on the board

– reading what is
written in textbooks</

– applying maths
knowledge and skills to solve maths problems

– with advanced
maths applications

– understanding
the vocabulary of mathematics

– building on
maths knowledge

– completing
multi-step procedures

How to support a
child with Dyscalculia

– finding out the
optimal ways a child learns—if, for

example, they are
visual learners, it will be useful to adapt

pictures into the
math curriculum to illustrate and help the child

– using graph
paper for students who have difficulty organising

ideas on paper

– work on finding
different ways to approach maths facts

– practice
estimating as a way to begin solving math problems

Project 1

A
school has advertised a job vacancy for an educational support worker who can
facilitate learning for students with disabilities. You want to apply for the
job. To do this you need to submit an application that demonstrates that you:Understand a
range of disabilities, their symptoms and the effect they might have on student
learning.Can support
students with the disability to learn new skills and concepts.Are aware of the
issues that students with disabilities might face.Can help
students with the disability to be independent.Can identify and
explain the legal requirements pertaining to your work with people with that
disability.Have the
personal values and attitudes a person should have when working with students
with that disability and can explain why those values and attitudes are
required.Know how to use
appropriate language when interacting with or discussing a student.Are able to
interact with students with disabilities in a positive and respectful manner.Are able to keep
appropriate student confidences.Can help
children to take part in group activities.Can help to
create appropriate resources and equipment.Have high
expectations for students with activities and can help them to set appropriate
goals.List the rights
that students with disabilities might have.Understand how
you would go about ensuring the health and safety of a child with that
disability in the classroom environment.Can contribute
to the planning of an Education Adjustment Profile and implement it.

You need to sell yourself.
Show in your application why you are the best person for the job by describing
the knowledge and skills you have and what you can do to help students with
disabilities achieve positive learning outcomes. You might want to use headings
to organise your application but you will need to make sure you address all of
the criteria identified by the school.

1. Understand a
range of disabilities,  and their
symptoms and the effect they might have on student learning.

Due to previously
working in a disability based centre, I have worked closely with children that
have a learning disability, whether it be a minor or a major disability. My
understanding is that a child with a learning disability is when a childs
development and achievement is affected by certain behaviours or impairments a
child may have. Some of the symptoms that I have found within working with
children of a disability include

• short attention
span,

• poor memory,

• difficulty
following directions,

• inability to
discriminate between/among letters, numerals, or sounds,

• poor reading
and/or writing ability,

• eye-hand
coordination problems; poorly coordinated,

• difficulties
with sequencing, and/or

• disorganization
and other sensory difficulties.

These symptoms and
other factors of having a learning disability can affect a childs learning as
it interferes with the way they think and comprehend. Teaching skills can be
pretty exhausting and might take a lot of time and patience. So before you
start to teach your child, it’s a good idea to think about what you’re asking
your child to do. Some may have trouble understanding or have certain
behaviours that cause them to react in a certain way.

2. Can support
students with the disability to learn new skills and concepts.

As Children with
disability may find it hard to learn skills for daily living – for example,
personal care and social skills. Three strategies I use for teaching skills to
a child with a disability include

• instructions:
teaching by telling

• modelling:
teaching by showing

• teaching step by
step.

3. Are aware of
the issues that students with disabilities might face.

Through working in
centres that include students who have a disability, issues that they may have
include physical, mental and emotional behaviours.

• language
processing disabilities can make reading and writing slow and challenging, and
memory issues can result in a student having to reread a piece of text or
listen to spoken instructions many times. These students also may need more
time to process information before answering questions or replying when spoken
to, which can result in difficulties contributing to classroom or group
discussions. Someone with attention deficit disorder may also find it difficult
to maintain focus, and paying attention is critical to learning. Organization
and planning can also be impaired, resulting in difficulty keeping track of
assignments or supplies and submitting work on time.

• Social and
Employment Difficulties

• Individuals with
a learning disability or ADD may have difficulty maintaining friendships,
relationships or employment, as they may find organization, impulse control,
planning and reading social cues to be a challenge. It’s important for each
individual to understand their areas of strength and weaknesses, so they can
better explain their needs to others in order to ensure personal and social
success

4. Can help
students with the disability to be independent.

Helping a child
with a disability become more indeoendant with setting goals and expectations
that they are capable of achieveing, putting them in a place they feel
comfortable and to show positive attitude towards them and praise when needed.
Whilst young people with disability have the same hopes and aspirations as
their peers without disability, they have less opportunity to develop social
networks and this inhibits the development of identity and independence.
Identity making is strongly linked to opportunities for meaningful
decision-making but young people with disability have been shown to ‘lack
voice’ in decisions about their lives.

5. Can identify
and explain the legal requirements pertaining to your work with people with
that disability.

It is everyone’s
role within the workplace to improve workplace mental health, both employees
and employers have rights and responsibilities under discrimination, privacy,
and work health and safety legislation. 
The Australia-wide Disability Discrimination Act 1992 is a legislation which
makes discrimination against others become illegal, this includes harassing or
victimizing people with a disability – including; temporary, permanent, past,
present or future, actual or just presumed mental health conditions

6. Have the
personal values and attitudes a person should have when working with students
with that disability and can explain why those values and attitudes are
required.

When working with
children with a disability, it is important to have patience. As the child may
have trouble understanding and comprehending things, it is important to have
the time, patience and positive attitude to help the child overcome these
times. Some of my values and attitudes which I feel fit best with this type of
role include being

• respectful

• compassionate,
caring and empathic

• ethical,
professional and responsible

• positive,
encouraging and hopeful

• open-minded

• self-aware

• culturally aware

• collaborative

• have the ability
to develop relationships built on respect and trust and who are effective
communicators

• have a positive,
‘can do attitude’ and are aware of people’s different needs and the needs of
all around them

• possesses a
genuine interest in the welfare of the people they support and who believes in
each person’s potentials and strengths

• empowers each
person they support to become more independent and involved in their local
community, who is flexible and open minded and who is willing to adapt and
change according to the situations that arise who never makes assumptions and
is able to work as a member of a team

• is a good
problem solver, with the ability to work through difficult situations – who is
honest with others and themselves

• is aware of
their own cultural values, attitudes and knowledge and how this affects their
work

7. Know. how to
use appropriate language when interacting with or discussing a student

With experience of
working with children with a disability, I have come across what manner and
ways we can use appropriate language when interacting with a student, these
incude

• Always remember
that a person with a disability is a person like anyone else. Treat adults as
adults

• Look and speak
directly to the person rather than communicating with them through their
companion

• When meeting a
person who is vision impaired, identify yourself and those with you, and inform
the person who is vision impaired when you are leaving

• Provide
assistance only when your offer to help has been accepted

• Use reflective
listening skills: ask open questions, summarise what the other person has said
or asked in order to ensure correct comprehension

• When
communicating with a person who has difficulty speaking, be patient and provide
them with time to complete their sentences

• Always face the
individual to whom you are speaking

• Turn down, or
off, background noise or music

• Ensure that only
one person speaks at a time during conversations or discussions

• Repeat other
students’ questions and comments to ensure everyone has heard

• Read aloud
material presented visually

• Give both oral
and written instructions

• Pace your
delivery

• If necessary,
allow brief breaks to allow students and sign-language interpreters to keep up

• Be flexible – if
one communication strategy doesn’t work try another

• When speaking
with a person who uses a wheelchair or crutches, pull up a chair to put
yourself at eye level

8. Are able to
interact with students with disabilities in a positive and respectful manner.

Im able to
interact with students with a disability in a positive manner through the
following behaviours

 Keeping in mind that students with
disabilities are often hampered more by other people’s attitudes and by
physical and methodological barriers than by any functional limitations they
may have.

• Maintain an open
mind about what a student with a disability can or cannot do. Often we assume
that because we have not met someone with a disability in a given field, it
cannot be done. Let the student determine her or his own capabilities.

• Act as an
advocate for treating students with disabilities with the same dignity and
respect you would any student. Allowing jokes about people with disabilities,
discussing a student’s disability with others without prior consent, expecting
a student to represent the views of all people with disabilities, and other
forms of tokenism are inappropriate.

• Understand that
there is a joint responsibility for successful interactions. Instructors must
work with students in a partnership to find solutions to issues that confront
them.

• Always address a
student with a disability directly. Speak clearly, at a moderate pace and
volume, and allow the student time to respond. Do not address the student’s
companions, including interpreters and aides, rather than the student. Also
avoid exaggerating or slowing your speech.

• It is okay to
offer assistance to a student with a physical disability but be sure to respect
the student’s personal space and dignity by asking before assisting. A good way
to ask if you can help is, “May I give you a hand with that?” or
“Do you want/need me to do anything?” Even if the student refuses, it
is still not wrong to ask.

9. Are able to
keep appropriate student confidences.

It is important
for a child to feel comfortable and confident in the environment theyre in
especially a child with a disability. If a child doesn’t feel confident, they
will find it hard to express themselves, second guess and feel intimidated.
Some strategies that I would suggest to help keep appropriate student
confidences include

-Offer praise and
acknowledge students’ accomplishments, both in private and in front of their
classmates.

-Try not to
correct every single thing the student says wrong. Do not interrupt the student
when they are talking to correct them — this will harm their confidence, not
boost it.

-Set attainable
goals from the start of the year. This is a surefire way for students to see
how much they have grown.

– Give students
the opportunity to choose what they learn — this will help them build their
self-worth.

– Be sure to
always express a positive attitude to all of your students. This will show them
that you are on their side, and that they are worth your attention.

-Create
opportunities for students to succeed by building on their strengths. If a
student knows a lot of information about something, ask them to tell you about
it. Asking students for their help is a great confidence boost to their ego.

– Encourage
students to do better than they did before.

– Keep a log of
how well all students are doing, and what they are good at and what they need
to work on. This careful monitoring will help you catch problems as they arise.

10. Can help
children to take part in group activities.

New environments such
as, group activities and classes can be very intimidating to shy children,
especially those under five who are still developing their language skills.
Children may not want to participate, cry or react in a negative way. A few
ways to encourage children to participate in group activities include

-Think about the
physical space. Is there room in your classroom for everyone to spread
themselves out adequately? What are the noise levels like? Will everyone be
able to hear each other?

– Provide
guidelines about how students are expected to treat each other when working
together as a group. It may be necessary to explain the kinds of behaviour that
won’t be tolerated, such as insults, intimidation, “opting out” and
blackmailing others into decisions.

-Before beginning,
it is often worthwhile to ask the students to share their own personal goals
for being a good team-member.

-Design your group
sizes based on the task and the skill level of the individuals.

– Think about the
division of labour. Are there enough tasks for everybody? Are the tasks varied
and suited to the team-members’ individual strengths? Do you want to allocate
roles to each group-member or at least inform the group beforehand of what the
roles will be

-Put your students
into groups before explaining the ins and outs of the task. If you try to
explain it before they are in groups, you are likely to hear whispering and
negotiating on group composition going on while you are trying to speak.

-Ensure you are
informing your students what the “point” of the activity is. Will they be
marked on “participation” and “teamwork” or only on the end product?

-Make the task
challenging

11. Can help to
create appropriate resources and equipment.

In my opinion,
ways to help create appropriate resources and equipment depends on the children
that will be using these resources. Base the experiences around the childrens
age, abilities and interest. Be creative and promote ways of creating resources
for example – recycled materials. Also providing children with equipment that
they may need due to disability. Resources may include using images,
projectors, music for children with a visual or hearing impairment. Adjusting
activities based on the childs disability will help them to learn.

12. Have high
expectations for students with activities and can help them to set appropriate
goals.

Setting
expectations for children are based on what a child knows and what you believe
they can achieve. Setting goals for a child will help them overcome learning
difficulties, set a goal to work at, show responsibility and have them think
about what they can achieve and set their mind to it to get there. Ways in
doing this include

• Believe in the
student

• Show that you
care

• Ask for higher
level thinking and analysis

• Help students
set their own, challenging goals

• Make your
expectations clear

• Publicly reward
excellent performance

• Don’t give up

13. List the
rights that students with disabilities might have.

Reasonable
adjustments might include things like changing seating arrangements in a
classroom so that a student with a wheelchair can move around independently, or
using videos with captions for a student who has a hearing impairment.

A child with a disability
has the right to education, vocational training and rehabilitation which will
enable them to develop their capabilities and skills to the maximum and will
hasten the process of their social integration or reintegration.

all students with
a disability have the same rights as other students to a free education that
caters for them:

• academically;

• socially;

• emotionally;

• physically;

• psychologically,

14 Understand how
you would go about ensuring the health and safety of a child with that
disability in the classroom environment.

Each child is
different, as they all have different needs– and the general recommendations
that are available to keep children safe should be tailored to fit your child’s
skills and abilities. It is important to

• Know and learn
about what things are unique concerns or a danger for their child.

• Plan ways to
protect their child and share the plan with others.

• Remember that
their child’s needs for protection will change over time.

• Ensure that the
room is designed and furniture is put into place safe enough for those with a
special need

• Ensure there is
no bullying or name calling in and out of the classroom

• Make the child
feel included and just as an individual as everyone else

• Can contribute
to the planning of an Education Adjustment Profile and implement

15 Can contribute
to the planning of an Education Adjustment Profile and implement it.

The Education
Adjustment Program (EAP) is a process used by DET to identify and respond to
the highly complex and specialised needs of some students with disability.

The EAP is an
ongoing cycle that includes documentation such as data collection, planning,
program development, intervention, evaluation and review. Below are a range of resources
that can be used to identify, prepare and maintain an EAP

• Smart boards

• Data projectors

• Displays

• Power points

• 3D objects

• Pictures

• worksheets
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