Formative assessments Activity 1 1           Write a short paragraph to define the meaning of legislation and policy. Legislation is law which has been promulgated…

Formative assessments

Activity 1

          Write a short paragraph to
define the meaning of legislation and policy.

Legislation is law
which has been promulgated (or “enacted”) by a legislature or other
governing body or the process of making it.

Before an item of
legislation becomes law it may be known as a bill, and may be broadly referred
to as “legislation”, while it remains under consideration to
distinguish it from other business. Legislation can have many purposes: to
regulate, to authorize, to outlaw, and to provide (funds), to sanction, to
grant, to declare or to restrict. It may be contrasted with a non-legislative
act which is adopted by an executive or administrative body under the authority
of a legislative act or for implementing a legislative act.

A policy is a set
of ideas or plans that is used as a basis for making decisions, especially in
politics, economics, or business.

          Provide six examples of relevant

• Family
responsibilities (for example child rearing, elder-care, illness of a partner
or dependant);

• A temporary or
permanent disability;

• Relevant
cultural expectations or circumstances;

• Periods of
part-time work; and / or

• Absences due to
ill-health or injury.

• The consistency
of activities or output over the period of consideration

          Why are legislation and policies
important in relation to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander education?
(50-100 words)

Participation in
culturally inclusive, high quality early childhood education programs and care
can assist Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children to get the best start
in life. These programs build upon the rich cultural, linguistic and conceptual
skills that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children bring to early
childhood education and:

 » promote early engagement with learning;

» provide a strong
foundation for future educational achievement;

» encourage the
social, emotional, physical and cognitive development of children from birth;

» support children
in their transition to school.

          How can relevant personnel
access copies of policies and legislation? (50-100 words)

– Are consistent
with the values of the organisation; comply with employment and other
associated legislation; -This demonstrate that the organisation is being …
For example, if you have a policy relating to punctuality, you may need to
include a procedure outlining what to do if the employee is going to be late

– This is driven
by changes to legislation, regulation and codes of practice. .

– All
organisations should have policies based on best employment practices and

– It must be
followed to access the leave. It will also outline the evidence that is required
as proof of illness or injury when claiming personal/carers leave

Activity 2

          How are positive relationships
between teachers/ educators and students characterised, and why is this
important? (100-150 words)

A positive
relationship between the student and the teacher is difficult to establish, but
can be found for both individuals at either end. … Student and teacher,
involving a setting in the primary grades, which I have found second grade to
be extremely important for the student to gain a positive attitude for their
future education.

-First, when it
comes to expectations, both parents and teachers have them for each other. They
expect certain things to happen. Parents expect teachers to instruct their
students and to guide their learning so they can have success. Teachers expect
parents to support the instruction and learning that happens in school, at
home. They also each have expectations for the child/student they share in
common. They have expectations for their student’s academic performance,
attendance, and behaviour both in school and out of school. If these
expectations are the same and they are communicated, a synergy will happen, and
their relationship can have a powerful effect on the student’s learning
outcomes. The operative word in all this is communicated. When expectations are
clearly communicated, both parents and teachers will have a better
understanding of their roles in the parent-teacher relationship. They will then
know how best to be a supportive part of that relationship

-Both parents and
teachers have an important role to play; their roles do not replace but rather
compliment and reinforce the other’s role, thus providing the student with a
consistent message about reading and learning. Thinking of parents and teachers
as “partners” refers to this mutual effort toward a shared goal. It also
implies shared responsibility of parents and teachers for supporting students
as learners.

          The Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander Education Strategy identifies seven priority areas; what are these?

and young people are taught by skilled educators who are culturally competent
in the local context. Providers, including principals, set high expectations
for learning that incorporates Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
perspectives. Further support for the engagement of children, young people and
their families is provided by building a well-qualified Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander education workforce.

 2. CULTURE AND IDENTITY Through the delivery
of the Australian Curriculum, education sectors acknowledge,  respect and reflect the histories, values,
languages and cultures of Aboriginal and 
Torres Strait Islander people. 
All Australian children and young people have the opportunity to learn
about the histories and cultures of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

Quality partnerships are encouraged between education sectors and local
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and other stakeholders. These
partnerships are characterised by listening and responding, strong
accountability and active engagement, collaborative information sharing and
informed decision making.

 4. ATTENDANCE engaging with learning is
fundamental in helping all children acquire the skills they need for life.
Schools and services work with families and communities on strategies to
address barriers to school attendance.

POST-SCHOOL OPTIONS Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young
people are supported at critical stages of their education to improve
engagement, retention and attainment and develop the skills to participate
fully in schooling, society and work.

culturally inclusive early childhood education services and schools work with
families and communities to set a strong foundation for early learning,
including a child’s transition to school.

 7. LITERACY AND NUMERACY Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander children’s English literacy and numeracy proficiencies are
developed by applying proven, culturally inclusive, responsive and personalised
approaches to learning, such as English as an additional language or dialect (EAL/D)
in order to improve their educational attainment, life choices and options.

          Describe four ways in which
teachers/ educators can build positive relationships that value diversity.
(100-150 words)

Initiate warm,
trusting and reciprocal relationships with children

• provide safe and
stimulating environments for children

• develop learning
programs that are responsive to each child and build on their culture strengths
and knowledge to take their learning and development forward

• understand,
communicate and interact across cultures by being aware of their own world view

• respect the
views and feelings of each child.

Play is essential
for its ability to stimulate and integrate a wide range of children’s
intellectual, physical, social and creative abilities. Active engagement with,
and atonement to children in their play extends and supports their learning.
Shared, sustained conversations are also a powerful and important feature of
active adult engagement.

Activity 3

          Provide four examples of appropriate
persons who can offer knowledge about the local region and cultural identity.

. – Who will be involved in contact with the

 • Their
relationship to the child and benefits for the child from contact

 • The
frequency and location of contact

 • Any
additional support provided by these persons and what this support will include

• Any requirements in relation to supervision
and who is to undertake this role

 • Regular
contact with at least one person who shares the child’s cultural background


          Write a short sentence to
describe what an elder is.

An elder is a
person who is older or higher in rank than oneself.

An aged

influential member of a tribe or community, often a chief or ruler; a

Tom respects his

Respect your

You must respect
your elders.

You should respect
your elders.

You have to
respect your elders.

          What is native title? (100-150

Native title
recognises the traditional rights and interests to land and waters of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Under the Native Title Act 1993
(NTA), native title claimants can make an application to the Federal Court to
have their native title recognised by Australian law.

Native title
recognises an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people’s traditional law and
custom. For the courts to recognise native title, there are two key legal
questions that must be answered:

Under the
traditional laws and customs of the group of Indigenous people claiming native
title, are their rights and interests to the claim area based on their
traditional connection to the area?

If a connection
under traditional law and custom is found, the courts ask the next question:

Has this
connection been either entirely or partially ‘extinguished’ (lost) by specific
government actions? For example, selling that area of claimed land.

          Describe six ways in which
knowledge concerning the local region and/or cultural identity can be
researched and what information each will provide.

These include
knowledge of:

•             Impact of colonisation on
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people

•             Equity and diversity principles

•             Difference between cultural groups

•             Organisation policies and
initiatives designed to support participation for Aboriginal and/or Torres
Strait Islander children and families

•             Anti-discrimination and

•             Information sources for local
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people, where appropriate

Our personal
cultural lens influences how we interpret others, and how we behave in society.
Culture is generally accepted to be a learned process while ‘race’ is
associated with perceived inherited characteristics. Relationships between
young and old in each culture exist to teach and reinforce culturally
appropriate behaviours, attitudes and values, following hierarchical
stratification of societies.

identity relates closely to cultural and social identity, which incorporates
roles in a social setting. Identity arises from the adoption of social roles
through personal experience. The individual negotiates the meaning of his or
her identity with family and society members.

Activity 4

          What are three of the ways that
the inclusion of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander context in education
programs can benefit Indigenous students?

Ensuring your
service is culturally competent;

Focusing on
attracting and retaining the right staff;

networks and relationships; and

Adopting an action
research approach

relationships with Indigenous program participants.

— This will often
be achieved by employing local people as part of a team, who bring with them a
deep understanding of cultural issues and a respect for local protocols.

Personal qualities
necessary to work cross-culturally. The ability to carry out “cultural
translation” is particularly important. It is necessary that staff members
are able to communicate effectively with and between both external stakeholders
and program participants.

skills to do the job. Many projects require people with specific qualifications
or expertise in areas such as childhood development, counselling, capacity
building, and leadership development.

          Why is it important to include
storytelling activities in the context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
education? (100-150 words)

Because Aboriginal
students can avoid direct eye contact to an adult as it is considered rude in
Aboriginal culture. When teachers misdiagnose Aboriginal students’ classroom
behaviour we can speak of ‘soft racism’.

children are also less likely to answer questions in the classroom because
traditionally, Aboriginal culture has been passed on through the telling of
stories; it’s not about questions and answers. Use story telling with visual
cues in your teaching to support Aboriginal students learn better, rather than
having them read and process materials directly.

students may have difficulty letting you know when they don’t know something or
are struggling to understand, due to a sensitivity to feeling shamed. They will
keep quiet when something is too difficult to avoid ‘getting it wrong’. Check
with them that they are understanding and absorbing without them feeling shame
if they are not

Storytelling is
used in a variety of ways. It is used to teach children how they should behave
and why, and to pass on knowledge about everyday life such as how and when to
find certain foods. Stories are also used to explain peoples’ spirituality,
heritage and the laws. Dreaming stories pass on information to young people
about creation, how the land was formed and populated, creation of plants,
animals and humans, information about ancestral beings and places, the
boundaries of peoples’ tribal lands, how ancestors came to Australia, how
people migrated across the country and arrived in a particular part of the

          What are some of the effects
when learning environments successfully promote Indigenous connectedness and
engagement? (100-150 words)

. Acknowledging,
embracing and developing a positive sense of Indigenous identity in schools

. Acknowledging
and embracing Indigenous leadership in schools and school communities

• having ‘high
expectations leadership’ to ensure high expectations classrooms, with high
expectations teacher and student relationships

• developing
innovative and dynamic school staffing models—for example, asking for community
input into hiring staff, recruiting Indigenous teachers, Indigenous staff
members and staff with specialist expertise with Indigenous students

• adopting
innovative and dynamic school models in complex social and cultural
contexts—for example use of flexible timetabling, provision of dedicated space
for Indigenous students, and use of policies to manage and accommodate student
mobility between schools.

          What can result when Indigenous
children are cut off from their culture? (50-100 words)

Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander people have a complex system of family relations, where
each person knows their kin and their land. … Forced separations were part of
deliberate policies of assimilation. Their aim was to cut children off from
their culture to have them raised to think and act as ‘white’.

Activity 5

          What is culturally respectful
community engagement built on? (30-80 words)

Knowledge: • Who
are the community leaders/Elders that you could connect with? • What resilience
and wellbeing work has already been done in the school and the community? Who
might help you find out? • How might you find out about community life, including
cultural sensitivities and strengths? • Are there other stakeholders who need
to be invited and involved?

Preparation: •
What strategies could you use to invite Aboriginal people to participate, e.g.
word of mouth, colourful posters at key places around the community,
invitations by Aboriginal and non-Indigenous staff? • How could you create a
meeting environment where everyone feels safe to participate? • Is the meeting
place easy to get to? Is the time of the meeting suitable? • Is the meeting
place set up so there are chairs in different parts of the room, and not only
up the front? • Consider placing some chairs outside the meeting space to
encourage participation by people who may have other obligations, or (in some
communities) might have an avoidance relationship with someone inside the room.

          Provide two examples of
non-verbal communication and what they might mean to an Aboriginal and/or
Torres Strait Islander person.

Some non-verbal
communication cues (hand gestures, facial expressions etc.) used by Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander people have different meanings in the Western

 Be mindful that your own non-verbal
communication will be observed and interpreted. For example, feelings of
annoyance may be reflected by your body language and are likely to be noticed.

          List four of the values that
allow a learner to know and understand the basis of respect.

As human beings,
we all have our own values, beliefs and attitudes that we have developed
throughout the course of our lives. Our family, friends, community and the
experiences we have had all contribute to our sense of who we are and how we
view the world. As community services workers, we are often working with people
who are vulnerable and/or who may live a lifestyle that mainstream society
views as being different or unacceptable. If, as community services workers, we
are to provide a service that meets the needs of our target groups and helps
them to feel empowered, we need to be aware of our own personal values, beliefs
and attitudes and be prepared to adopt the professional values of our
industry—and not impose our own ideas on our clients.

Do these values
make you feel good about yourself?

Are you proud of
your top three values?

Would you be
comfortable and proud to tell your values to people you respect and admire?

Do these values
represent things you would support, even if your choice isn’t popular, and it
puts you in the minority.

          Describe the meaning of:An
Acknowledgement of Country. (30-80 words)A Welcome to
Country. (30-80 words)A Smoking
Ceremony. (30-80 words)

Acknowledgement of Country is an opportunity for anyone to show respect for
Traditional Owners and the continuing connection of Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander peoples to Country. … There are no set protocols or wording
for an Acknowledgement of Country, though often a statement may take the
following forms.

A welcome
country-Protocols for welcoming visitors to Country have been a part of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures for thousands of years. Despite
the absence of fences or visible borders, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
groups had clear boundaries separating their Country from that of other groups.

A smoking
Ceremony-A smoking ceremony is one of the most significant ancient ceremonies
performed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The ceremony
involves smouldering various native plants to produce smoke which are believed
to have cleansing properties and the ability to ward off bad spirits.

Activity 6

          What are three of the ways in
which community members can support educational programs?

Respect from staff for families’ strengths and efforts

• Readiness of staff to involve all families in all
aspects of the life of the school

 • Understanding of
the students’ strengths, needs and goals

 • Resources to
support schools’ learning programs

• Attendance of families at school activities

• Expectation of families and community to be involved in
school programs and governance


          Describe three strategies that
can be used to assist in the development and maintenance of strong community
partnerships and engagement. (150-200 words)

• Positive phone calls
from the school leadership team and teachers to families about students’

 • School newsletters written in families first

 • Assistance to families to help them to
understand their child’s school report 

• Technology used
to communicate between home and school, including emails, blogs and SMS 

• Formal and
informal structures in place to encourage families to initiate conversations
with school leaders     and class teacher

  • Professional learning activities for staff
on ways to communicate with families from diverse backgrounds

 • Staff employed or given responsibility for
building relationships between families and the school.

– Give overall
direction? A strategy, such as enhancing experience and skill or increasing
resources and opportunities, should point out the overall path without
dictating a particular narrow approach (e.g., using a specific skills training

– Developing
strategies is really a way to focus your efforts and figure out how you’re
going to get things done. By doing so, you can achieve the following

Taking advantage
of resources and emerging opportunities

effectively to resistance and barriers

A more efficient
use of time, energy, and resources

          Why is the personal support of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parents and families important to
children’s learning and resource development? (150-200 words)

• Parents and community are the most important influence
in their child’s development;

• Parents, family and community are a great
resource for helping all children in the kindergarten;

 • The
parents and family may have a great number of valuable contacts within the

 • The
parents, family and community of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children
should be invited to the kindergarten not only for their knowledge but also to
sit and play;

 • What
families and the community have to offer must not be abused; 

• It can take time to get them to engage in

• Itis always best to take things slowly.

All children have the right to develop and
retain their cultural identity;

• The identity and self-esteem of all children
must be supported by the services offered to them;

• Indigenous children, people and community have
a unique contribution to make to Australian society and particularly to the

 • Such a
program provides a positive representation of Indigenous people at the crucial
early age;

• Such a program teaches and values an important
part of Australia’s history while focusing on the contemporary issues;

          List four strategies that can be
used to involve parents and community members in their students’ school

. Make a personal
commitment •

. Find one other
person (at least) who shares your commitment and will support you;

Ensure that all
eligible families are aware of the kindergarten subsidy;

• Ensure that
services are aware of resources available to discount fees for eligible

• Establish a
nutrition program;

• Help families
share transport resources;

 • Make sure SRA funds are used in a flexible

 • Find out about local Indigenous playgroups
and develop links;

• Participate in
cross-cultural training;

Activity 7

          Explain the meaning of pastoral
care. (30-80 words)

Pastoral care is
to help with personal needs and problems given by a teacher. It also means the
Nurturing and enhances the minister’s strength and resiliency.

Pastoral care
therefore involves promoting and supporting “knowledge of self, healthy risk
taking, goal setting, negotiation, reflection and empowerment” to provide
optimal learning and development outcomes.

          Provide examples of at least
eight pastoral care initiatives. 

education worker

Accesses to
community workers

Working collborately
with other agencies

Home visits by
appreciate and relevant personnel

Cultural awareness
training for staff, educators and teachers by relevant committee organisations.

          List four types of relevant
personnel who can support the pastoral care of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait
Islander students.

4 types of
relevant personnel who can support the pastoral care:

• Case worker

. Bullying

. Welfare

. Pastoral

          Describe a type of pastoral care
program, and how it benefits Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students.
(100-150 words)

Pastoral care
describes as intentional friend, involves promoting and supporting “knowledge
of self, self-efficacy, healthy risk taking, goal setting,

pastoral curricula: that is developed to promote the personal, social, moral,
spiritual and cultural development and wellbeing of children through
distinctive programmes, tutorial work and extra-curricular activities.

 These activities include the development of
content knowledge; general pedagogical knowledge; curriculum; knowledge of
learners and their characteristics; and knowledge of educational ends, purposes
and values.

 In particular, it requires assisting teachers
in linking research to their own practice by providing opportunities for them
to create new professional knowledge to develop wellbeing.

          Why are schools and learning
environments well placed to initiate sports and physical activities, and what
are the benefits for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students?
(150-200 words)

Because the
learning environment:

• Encourage
children to play outside whenever possible.

 • Encourage children to be physically active
or play sports.

 • Be a positive role model by being physically
active yourself.

 • Plan physical activities that involve the
entire family.

  Develop children’s motor skills related to
lifelong physical activities.

 • Develop children’s use of behavioural skills
that will help them maintain a physically active lifestyle (goal setting,
self-monitoring, decision making).

• Increase
children’s knowledge about HOW to be physically active.

• Encourage
positive beliefs and attitudes towards physical activity.

• Encourage school

The benefits of
bringing traditional Indigenous games back to life include:

of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people

-helping to
reconnect Indigenous urban youth to their culture

=boosting school attendance


essential training in social interaction

physical health.

-physical activity
levels of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people over time, together with
poor nutrition, has contributed to an increase in the number of Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander people who have chronic diseases.

Activity 8

          List 10 things you can do to
demonstrate cultural competency and enhance interactions with Aboriginal and/or
Torres Strait Islander students.

Support individual
cultural identities

1. Secure and
respectful relationships

2. being aware of
one’s own world view

3. Developing
positives attitudes towards cultural differences

4. Developing
skills and communications through cultures

5. respect for

6. Partnership

7. Gaining
different knowledge of different cultures practice in the world views

8. Cultural
competence is the ability to recognize the importance of race, ethnicity, and
culture in the provision of behavioural health services.

9. Create
environments to support children’s cross-cultural understanding and

10. Support
individual cultural identities.

          Explain cultural competence.
(100-150 words)

.     Cultural competency is a commitment to
engage respectfully with people from other cultures.

•    Cultural competence is about our will and
actions to build understanding between people, to be respectful and open to
different cultural perspectives, strengthen cultural security and work towards
equality in opportunity

.    Cultural competency is one of those
expressions, where we think what we mean, but we made mean something different.

   .Becoming ‘culturally competent’ requires
educators to engage with the Principle ongoing learning and reflective

.   Becoming cultural competence it helps
reflect on own cultural identity and biases

 –  It
also helps support individual cultural identities

–   Cultural competence helps create
environments to support children’s cross cultural understanding and   relationships

–   support the implementation of inclusive
learning experiences

–   support children in developing confidence
and strength in personal and cultural identity.

Activity 9

          Why is it important to keep
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander information confidential? (50-100

laws apply as part of Trade Secrets laws. These laws have been used in the past
to protect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander secret and sacred knowledge in
Australia when researchers have attempted to publish information that
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people told them was secret.  Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
knowledge that is maintained within a community could be considered       a trade secret. But once the knowledge is
spread to the public, that is, outside the community, then this option no
longer exists. Anything
that you tell a researcher should remain confidential, unless you are told that
it will be made public.  You can tell a
researcher that you don’t want them to write or talk about something in
particular.  Before speaking about
important things, make sure that you have asked the researcher how they are
going to protect your confidentiality.

          Conduct independent research to
identify and list six Australian Privacy Principles (APPs).

– The open and
transparent management of personal information including having a privacy

– An individual
having the option of transacting anonymously or using a pseudonym where

– The collection
of solicited personal information and receipt of unsolicited personal
information including giving notice about collection

– How personal
information can be used and disclosed (including overseas)

– maintaining the
quality of personal information

– keeping personal
information secure

– right for
individuals to access and correct their personal information


– know why your
personal information is being collected, how it will be used and who it will be
disclosed to

– have the option
of not identifying yourself, or of using a pseudonym in certain circumstances

– ask for access
to your personal information (including your health information)

– stop receiving
unwanted direct marketing

– ask for your
personal information that is incorrect to be corrected

– make a complaint
about an entity covered by the Privacy Act, if you consider that they have
mishandled your personal information.

          What is the meaning of a skin
name? (30-80 words)

-The kinship
system is a feature of Aboriginal social organisation and family relationships
across Central Australia. It is a complex system that determines how people
relate to each other and their roles, responsibilities and obligations in
relation to one another, ceremonial business and land.

– (in Aboriginal
culture) a name identifying a person’s position in a society that uses skins as
the basis of social organisation.

“Both have
been given skin names establishing their kinship positions.

          How should culturally sensitive
information be asked for? (100-150 words)

You should always:
be respectful of cultural practices, attitudes and beliefs. e.g. removing shoes
before entering a home; show consideration, e.g. think of the needs of others
from their point

differences and beliefs affect everything we do and say. We may not even be
aware of these differences. Often we base our expectations of others on our own
experiences. If you have not had experience with people outside your own
culture, you may find your expectations of how others should act are misguided.

-Think about some
of the attitudes, ideas and beliefs that people from other cultures have that
are different to yours

-be respectful of
cultural practices, attitudes and beliefs. e.g. removing shoes before entering
a home

consideration, e.g. think of the needs of others from their point of view

-be polite, e.g.
use the preferred title and the appropriate tone of voice, listen to others
address each other

-show genuine

-respect a
person’s right to privacy and confidentiality.

          Describe an effective process
for gathering and managing information of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait
Islander people who have passed away. (150-200 words)

. Consider
providing a larger and more private room for the patient as a large number
visitors should be anticipated

• If possible
flexible visiting hours for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients
should be considered as family members may be travelling quite a distance if
they are from remote and interstate locations

• Family members
may request to stay with the patient overnight. This is important to facilitate
as often the family member is the patients only connection to country and it is
very important that an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person not die alone.
Please contact your Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Education
Officer to help support the facilitation

Developing rapport with the family on first contact, will assist staff
in the ability to provide the best possible care for the patient and helps
ensure streamline cooperation and understanding •  You must obtain consent from the patient
before contacting the Aboriginal Health Service

 • Please consider and respect that not all
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients will want to be seen by an
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Education Officer or the AHS.

Activity 10

          What activities can be
implemented to provide Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students with
opportunities to share their culture and local context? Name six activities. 

– Sand pit, for example,
making footprints

 -Koorie trail available?

 – Rocks where a bush camp can be setup

 -chance to experience a campfire or role-play
at fishing

 -learn about bush-tracking, bush–tucker, flora
and fauna, use of natural materials

– learn about the
use of sandstone and grinding

Aboriginal/cultural music with musical instruments

          Give four examples of resources
that can be made available to promote Indigenous culture.

– dots painting

– Musical instruments

– Aboriginal flag/
face painting

– Dress ups and
white face painting

          Why is storytelling so important
to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples? (30-80 words)

A story teller in
Indigenous Australia is still a very important as it is the way of passing on
information to people. As it contains names of deceased people. And through
song, dance, painting and storytelling, which express the dreaming stories,
Aborigines have maintained a link with the Dreaming from ancient times to today.

Activity 11

          List six ways in which a
learning environment can connect to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander

. Language support

• Language Program

• Languages
(Formerly LOTE)

• History

• Cultural

• Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Studies

• Local Area

          Why is it important for all
students to have culturally diverse experiences? (100-150 words)

A cultural diverse
experience is one that values the difference in people. It is one that
recognizes that people with different backgrounds, skills, attitudes and
experiences bring fresh ideas.

positive relationships with the local community, bring new perspectives and
encourage people from different backgrounds to use your services

-When involving
people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds into your
organisation, you have to be respectful of their religious and cultural beliefs

-also making sure
you ask people how they want to be addressed.

 -Touching another person

-Holding a person’s
gaze when they are speaking

-Dress codes

-Different ways of
greeting people

-. Showing support
for cultural diversity involves talking with people to find out how best to
include them and respect their cultural needs.

          Describe four educational activities
in which students can explore cultural diversity.

– 4 educational
activities I would explore with children is:

– Multi-cultural
cooking experience

– Aboriginal dots
painting with Naidoc week

– Chinese new
dragon painting

– Aboriginal
boomerang paintings.

Activity 12

          What are three of the key
factors for teaching Aboriginal children?

– The key factors

– building
relationships with parents and family

– Students
engagement in work

– Valuing
Aboriginal culture in the school environment

          Why is it important to improve
the literacy and numeracy skills of young people and adults? Provide five

To improve a
literacy and numeracy skills of young people and adults:

-for better
communications and understanding

-it also help to
be able to read, write, speak and listen in ways that allows us to communicate

-it also helps to
achieve our personal goals and ambition and develop knowledge and potential

-it also helps
people to gain a fundamental skills necessary to achieve success in life

-if you have a
poor levels of literacy and numeracy there is a plenty of help that can help
you successes in school.

          Explain two ways in which
teaching literacy can be contextualised for Aboriginal and/or Torres
Strait Islander children. (50-100 words)

Teaching literacy
can be contextualised in Aboriginal and /Torres Strait islander children:

-more of sounding
out words

experiences and strategies in which students can gain meaning and develop the
appropriate language that enables them to extend their skills

– Also, making
sure the children are familiar with the concepts before it is formally taught
and children must have the opportunity to communicate/ verbalise.

          Explain three ways in which
teaching numeracy can be contextualised for Aboriginal and/or Torres
Strait Islander children. (50-100 words)

Three ways in whch
teaching numeracy can be contextualised for Aboriginal and /Torres Strait
islander children are:

1. Small group
work to encourage discussion and exploration of ideas

2. Discussing
during lessons to enable students to engage with and understand new and
established mathematical concepts and sometimes giving one and one with a
student for better understanding and that’s way we can find the week point for
a student and help them out.

3. Also to the use
of hands-on materials to support the understanding and development of numeracy
concepts, and to also to open ended questions for teachers and student to
establish the right numeracy concepts daily.

Activity 13

          Many Aboriginal and/or Torres
Strait Islander peoples are multilingual. Why is this and language generally so
important to their culture? (200-250 words)

generally so important to their culture because:

– This language
describes cultural attachment to place, cultural heritage items, and puts
meaning within the many cultural activities that they do.

– The language
plays important parts in binding communities together as a culture, and
individuals to each other in the society.

language generally also helps them to better understanding of knowledge that
children come to school as o master English literacy work.

-they also
acknowledged this as having cultural and heritage significance and
communications skills.

-It also enable
one to feel proud of themselves, and speaking an maintaining ones language
raises self-esteem and feel good about them.

– The language
also contains the essence of the ancestors, every word comes from place, and
identifies people and links to the land, country, the dreaming, they are all
inherent in language, therefore it means the people, the land everything in

-It also acquired
later in their life of sense of well-being and belonging for many indigenous
people who have lost ties with their culture

– They class the
multilingual language as their identity and their mother tongue, gives them
pride. Language is their law and justice.

– It also
important cultural heritage, knowledge, tradition and identity to unique
Aboriginal and Torres islander people.

          How can learning environments
build effective working relationships with parents and communities? (150-200

The learning
environment build effective working relationship with parents and communities

–              Trust, teamwork, communication and
respect are keys to effective working relationships

–              Developing positive communications
to make the work better and enjoyable.

–              Do your share of the work.
Volunteer to take on challenging assignments.

–              Arranging meetings and workshops

–              Providing support and help for
families, particularly in encouraging them to be involved in their children’s

–              Maintain eye contact during

–              By providing safe and secure environment
during activities

–              Approach family members and check
who you can talk to if you have questions

–              Provide families with a key staff
contact person in case families have any questions about the service, their
child’s wellbeing or wish to share information

          Why is the Base 5 Number System
so relevant for Aboriginal students? Provide an example of how this can be
incorporated into a numeracy program. (150-200 words)

–              Numbers represented in a variety
of ways and representations including fractions, percentages, decimal
fractions, positive integer powers and ratios

–              Place value and understandings
necessary for ordering and distinguishing relative magnitudes of whole and
decimal numbers with very small and very large numbers

–              Counting in base five can be
modelled by counting with only one hand instead of two like is done in the base
ten number system.

–              Examples:

–              Where every time we collect 5 one
dollar we swap them with $5 dollar note

–              Students find the words used for
each of the numbers one, two, three, four and a handful in the local Aboriginal
language, place and value.

          What are five important key
concepts for providing numeracy programs?

– enable families
to play a maths game while thinking, socialising and having fun.

• work to increase
resources, knowledge of resources and visibility of numeracy

• Work with staff
to improve teaching, including planning, teaching approaches, assessment and

• Work with
students and staff to improve attitudes and confidence in numeracy.

. Providing
examples with topics and one and one with the students.

Activity 14

          List six ways in which educators
can effectively communicate and interact with students.

– One and one
interactions with a students.

– having a small
groups of activities doing together to help the students

– getting done to
their level to help them in problem solving

– Don’t Interrupt
– If a student is trying to tell you something that may be difficult or
painful, give him time to relay his feelings

– When making eye
contact, you are signalling that you think they are very important and
deserving of your attention

– Always how
he/she that part of communication is showing respect for the thoughts of others.

          In terms of delivering
communications, what is modelling? (30-80 words)

The term of
delivering communications, and what is modelling is how/ we communicate with
another. And we put two to four words together in the communications in the

Example: if a
child want a ball, then we would model 3 or 4 words together, like a blue ball
or he /she wants to kick a ball.

3           When communicating with a student
with a hearing impairment, why is it important to avoid covering the mouth and
facing the student when speaking? (30-80 words)

To avoid covering
your mouth and facing the student when speaking to them does not help them
understand the conversation you doing with them. Sometimes it helps them to
learn through your actions and lip reading.

          Explain the following terms:Inclusive
communication. (30-80 words)Equitable
communication. (30-80 words)Ethical
communication. (30-80 words)

A. inclusive
communication is sharing a information’s in way that everybody understand when
speaking to them.it also enable them to make and understand choices, express
feelings and needs, and involve themselves in the world around them.

B. Equitable
communications is fair / open minded/ impartial.  Better understanding of their children to
support shared decision-making about each child’s learning and development.

c. Ethical
communications:  is when the questions of
rights and wrong arises during a conversation together, it also gets to the
development of decision making and relationship to the communities.  Ethical communications specialises in
understanding people. We ask good questions, we seek to understand the issues
and we create strong relationships with our peers and friends.

Activity 15

          Describe eight barriers that
many young Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students face.

8 Barriers:

– English teaching

– Inappropriate

– Lack of

– Connection to
their communities

– Uneducated

– Poor teaching

– No ‘black faces’
in study resources.

– Not allowing
them to dream big.

          Where can specialist advice and
support be obtained from in regards to developing learning strategies? (30-80

The specialist
advice and support be obtained from in regards to developing learning
strategies is from agencies to deliver government objectives and with NACA
policy and procedures with additional needs.

          What are the learning
implications for a barrier such as hearing loss or impairment? (50-100 words)

Effects of hearing
loss on child development. Child development It is well recognised that hearing
is critical to speech and language development, communication and learning and
body balancing.

-Hearing loss may
be caused by a number of factors, including: genetics, ageing, exposure to
noise and with loud PITCH.

-The term hearing
impairment is often viewed negatively as it emphasises what people cannot do.

OR usually
reserved for people who have relative insensitivity to sound in the speech

          List six characteristics of a
hearing loss or impairment with children.

– Hereditary

– When volume is
reduced but sounds are not distorted, the hearing loss is considered:

– Removal of wax
or a foreign object from the ear will help which type of hearing loss

– A brain tumour
or trauma are causes of conductive loss

– An immediate
remedy to the communication barrier experienced by deaf individuals is hearing

– Sounds are
created by vibrations.

Summative assessment 1

Question 1       Why is it important to clarify organisation
policies and legislation to personnel, and how can this be achieved? (100-150

– It is important to clarify the policy and
procedure’s because it outlines the organizational and operational structure of
a company.

– Well-written policies and procedures bring
structure to any business, no matter what the size of a business is

– By creating policies and procedures,
companies, know what the rules, are and how to measure success or failure of an
operational process, including succession planning

– How can this be achieved:

–  To
retain people that are good when you have structure.

– We must have the support of the executive team
to implement the policies and procedures and to carry those plans out when
turnover occurs

– Team work when helping one another in a

– Personnel policies help implement a consistent
approach to management

Question 2       Provide an overview of three resources and
activities that value diversity and build positive relationships with students
and how they can be used. (300-350 words)

1.            Engage
in Positive Interactions with Students

-“meet-and-greet” process that enables students
and staff to gain information about the cultural backgrounds

Example: “name activity’ that encourages
students to talk about the origins of their name, how they came to be given it,
or what it means. This can help to encourage interaction between students, as
well as opening up discussion about diversity.

–              Also
display positive learning environment with student and   nonverbal behaviors Examples: inviting
facial expressions, eye contact, posture, hand gestures, physical distance, to
ensure you appear approachable to students.

2.            Encourage
Open and Inclusive Classroom Discussion

-promote turn taking in a discussion

Example, ensure students take turns expressing their own opinions while
also listening during a class time

 – Always
ask students how they prefer to learn, examples: providing an online forum to
openly discuss how they like to learn are ideal methods to explore learning

–  Whether
they like more one and one together after a class.

Question 3       What is a traditional owner? Why are they an
appropriate person to seek knowledge from concerning the local region and
cultural identity? (200-250 words)

Request If
You Could Answer Please

 Question 4      Describe six
activities that can be included in the context of Aboriginal and/or Torres
Strait Islander education programs. Why is it important to include these
activities when planning education programs? (250-300 words)

6 activities and why these activities are
important to include in activities

1.            Symbols
and images – Using images and metaphors to understand concepts and content-this
way of learning enfolds the recurring concept in Aboriginal pedagogy research
of students being primarily visual-spatial learners, but it goes beyond the
problematic notion of learning styles, reframing visual learning as symbolic
learning -a strategy rather than an orientation.

2.            Learning
maps – Explicitly mapping/ visualizing processes-this way of learning is about
making those overall shapes of structures in texts, activities and courses
explicit in a visual way for Aboriginal learners. Teachers can use diagrams or
visualizations to map out processes for students to follow.

3.            Story
sharing – Approaching learning through narrative-this way of learning harnesses
well-documented Indigenous teaching methods that make use of personal
narratives in knowledge transmission and transformation. It has long been
observed that elders teach using stories, drawing lessons from narratives to
actively involve learners in introspection and analysis.

4.            Nonverbal
– Applying intrapersonal and kinesthetic skills to thinking and
learning-hands-on learning is a characteristic element of this Aboriginal way
of learning. Another dimension of this is the role of body language in
Indigenous communities and the use of silence as a feature of Aboriginal
learning and language use.

5.            Community
links – Centering local viewpoints, applying learning for community
benefit-this draws together the research describing Aboriginal pedagogy as
group-oriented localized and connected to real-life purposes and contexts. In
Aboriginal pedagogy, the motivation for learning is inclusion in the community,
while teaching refers to community life and values.

6.            Deconstruct/reconstruct
– Modelling and scaffolding, working from wholes to parts (watch then do)-this
way of learning organizes notions of holistic, global, scaffolder and
independent learning orientations in Aboriginal students. This is about
successive approximation to the efficient end product-learning wholes rather
than parts. Aboriginal students master activities and texts beginning with the
whole structure, rather than a series of sequenced steps.

Question 5       What is a protocol and why are protocols important
when accessing community resources and personnel in a culturally appropriate
way? (150-200 words)

if you could answer please

Question 6       Why is involving Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait
community members and cultural representatives important for the development of
educational programs? (80-130 words)

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Question 7       Provide four examples of how learning environments
can tailor operations to meet the needs and pastoral care of the local
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Why is this important?
(100-150 words)

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answer please

Question 8          Provide examples of six ways to promote and
learn about Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander culture, which will
develop own skills and knowledge.

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Question 9       Why are artworks and posters important items to be
used to promote Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander culture? What
considerations need to be made when using or purchasing Indigenous art?
(250-300 words)

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Question 10     If a student has been identified with a hearing
loss, what are some communication and delivery strategies that an educator/
teacher can use? Describe 10 strategies

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Summative assessment 2

Project 1

one appropriate planned activity that supports the cultural identity of
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students. The aim of the experience
should be to foster cross-cultural awareness and understanding. Plan for a
group of children aged between eight to 12 years.

The activity should
demonstrate an understanding of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
culture and values. It should be age appropriate and reflect an authentic
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander perspective.

A detailed plan must explain
why you have chosen the activity, how you will set up the environment, and how
you are going to involve and interact with the students during this experience.

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28 pages

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