[Solution]Assist in facilitation of student learning Formative Assessment

Activity 1 Games are one learning approach used in the classroom. In consultation with teachers, you may need to guide students in games or make…

Activity 1

Games are one learning approach used in the
classroom. In consultation with teachers, you may need to guide students in
games or make up games of your own. Create and provide a detailed description
of one game or physical activity that could be implemented to teach students
academic content/ theories.

You need to:

◦provide instructions

◦explain the aims of the game/ activity

◦specifically explain how the game/
activity helps to teach academic content/ theories

Provide: we are going to
use balancing beam for balance our body while walking and to use our hand eye
coordination skills.

Explain the aims: Today
when we went outside reeya collected some

Balance beam and asked
river for help. She said, “can you help me in making a bridge”? Then I asked
Reeya, “what are you going to do with them”? She said, “I am making a bridge”.
She hold a beam very strongly and then bent down to put on the ground in a
square shape. Then she started balancing. She opened her arms wide and waving
her arms up and down pretend as she is flying. When she was balancing on the
beam she was stepping in and out of the beam. Her eye and foot co-ordination
was getting better when she was doing it again and again. When she finished she
said I did it. I said, “well done reeya I liked the way you across the bridge”.

Explain:I noticed that
reeya has an ability to control her movements in a purposeful way and
manipulate objects such as balancing on beam she was joining beam altogether to
make square shape. She has a good control on her weight shift and weight
bearing which helped her to change the position of body while she is running or
climbing. Her body muscle is very flexible for easy movements. Her hand and foot
co-ordination is good. Playing with larger ball she has a good hand and eye
coordination in catching or throwing the ball. When she kicked the ball she
maintained balance on her one leg and kicked the ball with second leg. She is
becoming confident climber. Her muscle group is flexed and stretched to full
use in climbing.

Four possible intentional
teaching experiences:

1.            I will teach kids to put one foot in front of the other
and use their arms for stability. This will help them in balancing on the beam.

2.            To improve their hand and eye coordination I give choose
some activities such as tossing bean bag into the bucket, catching or throwing
balls.

3.            We used a ball for this simple relay, but any object
could be used, as long as the child passes and receives the object with both
hands. Make sure that they are sitting either cross-legged, or on their knees
to make sure their hips stay stable while their shoulders turn. It will improve
their catching and throwing ball activity.

4.            For an engaging activity for overall development of large
motor skill coordination, I will set up an obstacle course with common
household items such as chairs, boxes, pillows for children to run and crawl
through

)Your role: (include
enthusiasm, encouragement, respect and safety)

1. I will provide them a
positive and safe environment.

2. I will give them a
plenty of encouragement and support.

3. I will support
children’s effort and encourage as appropriate way

Trainer comment: please
write this whole in your own words

Activity 3

Go back to the activity/ game that you
created in Assessment activity 1 and make a list of any required resources
needed to complete that activity and explain how they will be used. Come up
with alternative resources that could be used if the required resources were
not available and explain how they could be used. (100–150 words

Today she was excited
to climb up the tree. When she noticed a bird nest on the tree. She said, “I am
climbing up to the tree and want to see bird nest”. She used her both hands to
hold the ladder and put her one foot on the first step of ladder and trying to
pulling herself up. She tried to reach second step and stretch her body and
balanced her hand and eye coordination. She looks at me and smile. Then she
started swinging on the ladder and pushed the ladder with her foot. She was
holding the ladder so strongly.

If this resources was
not available I would use the beamand little boxes for walking for my body
balancing.

-When she was
balancing on the beam she was stepping in and out of the beam. Her eye and foot
co-ordination was getting better when she was doing it again and again. When
she finished she said I did it. I said, “well done reeya I liked the way you
across the bridg

Trainer : please
write this in your own word.

Activity
4

Create
a lesson plan for an arts activity. Ensure that all the sections of a lesson
plan, as detailed in the text, are completed.

Grade Level: 1 – 3rd

 Subject: Arts

 Length of Time: 30-40 Minutes

Art Lesson Plan

In this visual and
performing arts lesson, students will explore their artistic skills while
becoming more connected with nature. Students will look for fallen plants
outside or in the garden and they will use them in the classroom to make art

Objective outcomes

Students will apply
artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning
and intent in original works of art

Materials

Materials Needed

•school yard with
trees and fallen leaves

•construction or
plain paper

•scissors (optional)

•glue

Procedures:

Opening to Lesson

Note: This lesson is
to be done outdoors on a very nice day. I recommend trying to get volunteers in
advance to help with monitoring the students. This could also be a good
big-buddy, little-buddy activity.

•The teacher will
lead a discussion with students about how nature makes its own art.

•Talk about the
beautiful colors in the fall, the unique shapes of leaves from different trees,
the different textures of rocks, dirt and sand, etc… be specific to your area.

•Ask students to name
some works of art that they see every day outside

Note: Have a waste
bin ready to throw away any trash they find

Closing

Let students share
and describe their art that they made with their partner, and then with the
class. Once they dry, you can post the pictures in the classroom.

Activity
5

Refer
to the lesson plan you developed in the fourth assessment activity. Write a
transcript of the instructions you would issue throughout the activity.
(100–250 words

Talk with students
about what they know about preserving the environment.◦Don’t litter

◦Don’t vandalize or
break anything in nature

•Ask students what
colors are found in the plants around the school yard/garden at school.

•Tell students that
today they will go outside for a fun lesson making art from found materials.

•Explain that they
are only to use things that they have found that is not still attached to the
plant.

•They can find fallen
leaves, dirt, sand, sticks, but they should not pick anything off of trees or
flowers.◦Emphasize that they want to conserve the environment the way it is.

•Explain that they
will be given paper, scissors and glue to make their work of art from nature.

•Give students about
5 minutes to think about what they could make. They can use the materials to
recreate the trees or garden that they can see in the school-yard or they can
make their own nature scene from their imagination.

•Talk about what
materials the students can use to make this scene. Dirt, leaves, etc…

•Bring the students
outside and have them sit in an orderly fashion, lined up or on their PE
numbers if available. They should each have a little space to work quietly.

•Tell students to go
and search for interesting fallen leaves, dirt, grass, small rocks, sticks,
etc… always thinking about how they are going to use each object.

•Have them bring the
objects back to their spot and sort them neatly.◦Optional: They can use the
scissors to cut the leaves.

•When students have
their objects ready, give them paper, cover it in glue and let them get to work
creating their environmental masterpiece!◦This will work ideally with Elmer’s
liquid glue, but depending on the age, you may want to just give them glue
sticks

Activity
6

1

Locate
the website of each of the state/ territory’s education department’s website.
Find and record the web address for the page on which syllabuses can be found.

NSW   , Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria, western
Australia, northern territory, south Australia ( find the web address).

2.

Identify
and comment on the English syllabus for kindergarten students. (80 words)

Students bring to
school a range of knowledge, understanding and skills developed in home and
prior-to-school settings. The movement into Early Stage 1 should be seen as a
continuum of learning and planned for appropriately.

In addition, teachers
need to acknowledge the learning that children bring to school, and plan
appropriate learning experiences that make connections with existing language
and literacy development, including language used at homeStudents develop
reading, viewing and comprehension skills and strategies using context,
grammar, word usage and phonics to make meaning from short, predictable printed
texts on familiar topics. They interpret and provide relevant explanations of
characters and main events in imaginative texts, and key ideas and visual
features in short informative texts, making connections to personal experience.
Students recognise, discuss and respond to the different kinds and purposes of
various written, visual and digital texts from a variety of cultures. They read
with some fluency and accuracy, drawing support from concepts of print and
their developing sound and letter knowledge. Students explore and identify some
features of texts, including the use of rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in
words in written and spoken texts

Activity
7

Undertake
your own research and provide a detailed description of expressive language
disorder. Include symptoms of the disorder in your description and identify
anything that can be done to help students with the disorder. (100–150 words

Children with
expressive language disorder (also referred to as expressive language
impairment) have difficulty expressing themselves through speech, writing or
gesture.

For many children,
the cause of expressive language disorder is unknown.

Treatment for
expressive language disorder depends on its severity, but might include therapy
with a speech pathologist

What is expressive
language disorder?

Children with
expressive language disorder have difficulty conveying or expressing
information in speech, writing, sign language or gesture. (For preschool
children, the difficulty expressing themselves in writing is not evident, as
they have not started formal education.)

Some children are
late in reaching typical language milestones in the first three years, but
eventually catch up to their peers. These children are commonly referred to as
‘late-talkers’. Children who continue to have difficulty with verbal expression
may be diagnosed with expressive language disorder or another language
impairment

Symptoms of
expressive language disorder

Children with
expressive language disorder have difficulties combining words to form accurate
phrases and sentences. For example, a child may not use the correct form of the
verb tense (they might say ‘I goed’ when they mean ‘I went’) or they might omit
important grammatical words (they might say ‘I going’ when they mean ‘I am
going’).

They typically
produce much shorter phrases and sentences than other children of the same age,
and their vocabulary (the number of words they know and use) is smaller and
more basic.

 Children with expressive language disorder are
usually below the average level for their age in:

•putting words and
sentences together to express thoughts and ideas

•recalling words

•using language
appropriately in a variety of settings with different people (for example, at
home, in school, with parents and teachers).

Specific examples of
expressive language impairment include:

•a seven-year-old
child being unable to join sentences with words like ‘and’, ‘but’ or ‘if’ (such
as ‘I went to the movies. I had popcorn’ instead of ‘I went to the movies and
had popcorn’ which is a more mature form of expression

•a three-year-old
child who speaks in two-word phrases only (such as ‘mummy car’ when they mean
‘That’s mummy’s car.’).

where to get help
from

speech pathlogoist

your doctor

your maternal and
child health nurse

Things that can be
done:

Speech Therapy
approaches and activities that can support the child with a language disorder
and/or their carers include:

Daily activities:
Providing parents with interaction strategies to develop language that can be
implemented during daily activities within the home.

Multi-sensory
approach: Using a multi-sensory approach (e.g. sight, taste, smell, touch) to
learn new words and concepts.

Motivating tasks:
Using the child’s interests to help develop their language skills.

Fun activities: Using
fun play based activities or games to help motivate the child to learn.

Visuals (e.g.
pictures, signs) can be used to help develop/aid understanding and expressive
language where appropriate and to help develop oral language in story telling.

Books: Teaching how
to use books and stories to aid language development.

Vocabulary:
Developing strategies for improving vocabulary knowledge and use.

Sequencing:
Developing strategies for improving the ability to sequence events and stories.

Grammar: Completing
activities to improve the appropriate grammatical elements of language (e.g.
use of past tense –ed, plural ‘s’).

Alternative forms of communication:
Teaching alternative ways of communicating whilst language is developing (e.g.
sign language, Picture Exchange Communication System – PECS).

Activity
8

1

Create
a worksheet that might be distributed to students in an art class

GRADE TWO VISUAL ART
LESSONPLAN # 1

Topic Difference in
our world                                   
Time : 30 minutes

“Difference
colours”

Brief description of
lesson activity:

Student will compare
of artwork in black and white and in colour, discuss how different colours in
artwork make then feel and complie a list of sources of colour in their lives.
Student s will then have the opportunity to observe colour outside and will be
asked to  draw the outline of one
colourful object they observe. On the outline students will label the colours
of the object but the picture will remain in pencil. Students will have an
opportunity to discuss the objects they saw and their drawings.

Visual Art Learning
Objectives:                                                     
Common Essential Learning objectives

                                                                                                      
1. Critical and creative thinking,

1. know that colour
is called an element of ar                                   
communciation

2. realize that
everone does not respond the same

way to a work of art

3. describe the
visual environment and visual information in own

daily lives

Assessment:

Assessment is
achieved for this lesson plan through the completion of an assessment
checklist. A copy of the checklist is provided following the visual arts lesson
plan#1.

Supplies:                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                                   

-black and white
photocopy of ted Harrison painting

-colour copy of Ted
Harrison painting

-pencil and paper
enough for students

. Copies of Ted
Harrison Artwork included after lesson plan#1

Components

step by step
procedure:

1. show students the
black and white copy of ted Harrison painting and ask what they think about it.

2.show students the
colour of the painting and ask them to complete the two and share what they
think.

which one they like
more? why they like it more? The impact of the colours? etc.

3. Tell students tat
colour is one of the elements of the art and that we can find many different
colours not just in art work but in our everyday lives. Empahasize that the
different names of the colours we see are called hues examples i.e yellow is a
different hue in red.

4. Ask student how
they would feel if everything was exactly the same colour. Ask students to give
you examples of colourful things in their lives that they think are beautiful
and write then down on the board.

5. Take students
outside and have them draw the outline of the a colourful object (i.e
flower,tree,playground,etc) Tell students to label the colours of the sections
of their objects so they are able to colour them later.

6. Take student back
inside and give them the opportunity to share their drawing with each other.
Discuss the many colours their drawing represent and the beauty different
colours bring to our world

2.
Undertake your own research and explain how you would modify the worksheet for
a student with dyslexia. (150 words

Listening to
children’s feelings. Anxiety, anger and depression can be daily companions for children
with dyslexia. However, their language problems often make it difficult for
them to express their feelings. Therefore, adults must help them learn to talk
about their feelings.  

 Rewarding effort,
not just “the product.” For students with dyslexia, grades should be less
important than progress

 When confronting unacceptable behavior, do not
inadvertently discourage the child with dyslexia. Words such as “lazy” or
“incorrigible” can seriously damage the child’s self-image.  

 Helping students set
realistic goals for themselves. Many students with dyslexia set perfectionistic
and unattainable goals. By helping the child set an attainable goal, teachers
can change the cycle of failure

Schools can implement
academic accommodations and modifications to help students with dyslexia
succeed. For example, a student with dyslexia can be given extra time to
complete tasks, help with taking notes, and work assignments that are modified
appropriately. Teachers can give taped tests or allow students with dyslexia to
use alternative means of assessment. Students can benefit from listening to
books on tape and using text reading and word processing computer
programs. 

Teaching students
with dyslexia across settings is challenging. 
Both general education and special education teachers seek
accommodations that foster the learning and management of a class of
heterogeneous learners.  It is important
to identify accommodations that are reasonable to ask of teachers in all
classroom settings.  The following
accommodations provide a framework for helping students with learning problems
achieve in general education and special education classrooms.  They are organized according to
accommodations involving materials, interactive instruction, and student
performance.

Accommodations
Involving Materials

Students spend a
large portion of the school day interacting with materials.  Most instructional materials give teachers
few activities or directions for teaching a large class of students who learn
at different rates and in various ways. 
This section provides material accommodations that enhance the learning
of diverse students.  Frequently,
paraprofessionals, volunteers, and students can help develop and implement
various accommodations.  Material
accommodations include the following:

 Clarify or simplify
written directions.  Some directions are
written in paragraph form and contain many units of information. These can be
overwhelming to some students.  The teacher
can help by underlining or highlighting the significant parts of the
directions.  Rewriting the directions is
often helpful.  

 Present a small
amount of work.  The teacher can tear
pages from workbooks and materials to present small assignments to students who
are anxious about the amount of work to be done.  This technique prevents students from
examining an entire workbook, text, or material and becoming discouraged by the
amount of work

Activity
9

Identify
one learning activity that requires a demonstration (eg a science project or
making a cake). Provide a point-by-point description of the demonstration you
would give to deliver the learning activity to students

Cook Up Some Science
Fun

What kid can resist
edible science? Kitchen experiments can be the most interesting, because they
involve common, everyday household items and yet point out some great science
concepts. For example, most children are familiar with cake baking, even if
they’ve only watched (and smelled) the process from a distance. They’ve seen
cake batter go into the oven and seen the resulting fluffy cake come out after
the baking time. Many have wondered exactly how the cake changes from batter to
confection, and a surprising number have come to erroneous conclusions like the
oven drying the batter out. Help them apply the scientific method and reasoning
skills to the process with this simple hands-on experiment that shows why cakes
need the ingredients that are in the recipe.

Supplies and
Ingredients

Before you present
this experiment to children, you’ll want to try it out yourself in the privacy
of your own kitchen. Some steps may require a bit of practice, and you’ll want
a flawless performance when you are helping kids try the steps in your
classroom or group. Here’s what you need to know:

Materials and
Equipment Needed:

Small cereal bowl,
aluminum foil, pie pan, measuring spoons, small bowl for egg, small mixing
bowl, knife to cut cake, timer, oven and mixing spoon.Ingredients for 4 cakes
(amounts shown are for one cake)

6 Tablespoons flour

Ready, Set, Bake!

Wrap several layers
of foil around the outside of the cereal bowl to mold into a small bowl shape.
Remove the foil from the bowl and put it in a pie pan for support. Oil the
inside of the foil bowl. Make four of these.

Preheat the oven to
350 degrees.

You will make four
cakes. One should have all of the ingredients above. Leave the following
ingredients out of the other cakes: oil out of one cake, egg out of the second,
and baking powder out of the third. Here are general directions for the small
cakes, but don’t forget to leave an ingredient out of three of them!

Mix the dry
ingredients together. Add the wet ones. Stir until completely mixed. Put the
batter into one of the foil pans. Be sure to keep track of which cake is which!
Bake for 15 minutes.

When the cakes are
done and have cooled enough to handle safely, cut into all four cakes. Look at
the insides, and offer tastes of each to the group. While they are looking and
tasting, discuss the science that they are noticing. Why did each cake turn out
the way that it did?

Getting Down to
Science

Cakes “work”
because the heat from the oven causes chemical reactions to occur in the
batter. Each of the main ingredients in traditional cake recipes is serving an
important purpose. By looking at the cakes and matching them up with the
missing ingredients, the children will find out what jobs each ingredient is
doing. The cake lacking baking powder will be flat and somewhat hard. Baking
powder is responsible for making the bubbles in the batter that leave the cake
light and fluffy. The cake that has no egg will have a very strange texture
because the protein in egg gets harder when heated to help the cake become
firm. The cake that has no oil in the batter will be very dry and crumbly,
because the oil normally keeps the cake from drying out in the heat of the
oven.

Younger children will
enjoy simply finding out what function each ingredient in the cake batter
serves. Older students can be encouraged to do more in-depth research to
discover exactly how each of those ingredients accomplishes its job in the
baking process. You can encourage them to conduct additional experiments and
present their findings to the group in true science-fair fashion.

Activity 10

Provide ten examples of
effective praise statements

1.
Make eye contact.

2.
Move close to the student if it appears natural.

3.
Smile.

4.
Give specific praise based on the type of result you wish to have:For Praise to
Reinforce Behavior​

Describe
the behavior you want to reinforce telling how you feel about it with specific
comments like, “Your thoughts were well organized in this essay,” or
“I liked your use of transitional phrases.” Don’t say this is a great
paper. The younger the student, the more immediate the praise should be. At the
high school level, most students are able to enjoy delayed praise.

For
Praise to Raise Self Esteem

5,Tie
this praise to some admirable personality characteristic. For example, you
might say, “That was hard for you, but you kept going. You have great
endurance,” or “You are such a considerate person. People are lucky
to have you as a friend.”

Effective
praise must be given with sincerity and enthusiasm.

6.Some
phrases that may help are:”I like it when you…

7.Hey,
you are really sharp, you…

8,I’m
very proud of you for…

10.Thank
you for…

11.That’s
a great way of…

2.What do you think you could do to establish positive,
mutually respectful relationships with students? (75–100 words

1.Review
what happened. Discuss the incident with Johnny. Begin with fact finding to be
sure that you are appropriately correcting the student. The worst way to affect
teacher-student relationships is to unfairly discipline a student.

2.Identify
and accept the student’s feelings. Tell Johnny that you understand why it upset
him to hear somebody call his mother a name and that you, too, would be upset
if someone maligned your mother. It’s important to understand that this step
communicates that you respect and understand his feelings but that you are not
accepting his actions.

3.Review
alternative actions. Go over with Johnny the different actions he could have
taken, such as ignoring the remark or reporting it to a teacher.

4.Explain
the building policy as it applies to the situation. Remind Johnny of the
building policy of not fighting and that the rule is if anyone hits another
student, he or she will be sent to the office and possibly be suspended from
school.

5.Let
the student know that all students are treated the same. Make sure that Johnny
understands that all students must adhere to the policy and that any student
who disregards the rule will suffer the consequences.

6.Invoke
an immediate and meaningful consequence. Communicate with the office about what
happened and send Johnny to the office.

7.Let
the student know you are disappointed that you have to invoke a consequence to
his or her action. Tell Johnny that you are disappointed that his actions have
led to this situation.

8.Communicate
an expectation that the student will do better in the future. Remind Johnny
that, although you do not approve of his actions and do not like to send him or
any student to the office, you like him and know that he will make a better
choice next time. Also tell him that you are there to support him and work
through these issues with him in the future.

Activity 11

You are preparing a learning activity to be used in a
class with a mix of visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learners. The subject of
the lesson plan is great painters in art history. How would you ensure that all
students’ learning styles are catered to? Give an outline of the lesson plan.
(100–250 words)

As
we plan learning with the brain in mind, (it) is critical to ask a different
set of questions. Rather than ask “What should I teach?” ask “How will students
best learn?” As you plan the learning, keep the focus on the basic principles
that support the brain’s natural learning tendencies. Follow through from
pre-exposure to celebration, making sure that none of the stages in between are
skipped. Learning happens over time. Create a complex, integrated,
interdisciplinary curriculum that provides for plenty of learner choice.
Provide structure, but in an environment that respects each learner’s unique
nature, needs, and experiences

Pre-expose learners to new material in advance. The more
background they have, the greater number of connections they’ll make.

Discover your students’ background in the subject, and
customize your planning to their experience level and preferred learning style.

Create a supportive, challenging, complex, no-threat
classroom environment in which questions and exploration are encouraged.

Ensure that your materials and presentation strategies
are age appropriate.

Acquisition happens both formally and informally; provide
learning experiences that reflect real life.

Always plan for elaboration. Presenting is not learning;
students must process the learning before they own it.

Help learners encode learning in their memory with
appropriate use of downtime, emotions, real-life associations, and mnemonic
techniques.

Functional integration happens only over time and with
repeated reviews

Take
lab classes. Lab classes offer kinesthetic learners the perfect opportunity to
interact with the materials pertinent to their class. If you can, try taking
classes that include a lab element so you get as much hands on time as
possible.

Go
on field trips. Going to a museum, park or historical place that relates to
what you’re learning can be a great interactive way to understand what you’re
learning about.

Interact
with professors and classmates. Don’t just sit quietly in the back of class,
ask questions, interact with teachers, and work with other students. This will
create a much more engaged learning experience and you’ll take more away from
it.

Write
and draw lecture materials. Just sitting and listening to a lecture may not be
enough to make it stick in your mind. Take notes and make sketches related to
class to reinforce the material.

Sit
near the front. It will be easier for you to interact with your teacher and see
what is going on if you sit near the front

Activity 12

Go back to the lesson plan you created in the fourth
assessment activity. Using this lesson plan, create a lesson summary and
highlight the role of the teacher aide/ teaching assistant. (200 words)

In
this visual and performing arts lesson, students will explore their artistic
skills while becoming more connected with nature. Students will look for fallen
plants outside or in the garden and they will use them in the classroom to make
art

Note:
This lesson is to be done outdoors on a very nice day. I recommend trying to
get volunteers in advance to help with monitoring the students. This could also
be a good big-buddy, little-buddy activity.

•The
teacher will lead a discussion with students about how nature makes its own
art.

•Talk
about the beautiful colors in the fall, the unique shapes of leaves from
different trees, the different textures of rocks, dirt and sand, etc… be
specific to your area.

•Ask
students to name some works of art that they see every day outside

what
material the teacher would giving to finished their activities example all the
nature plants and bark.

I
would also is how the children would perform their activity for the results.

Guiding
and helping the children.

Naming
colours and feeling the texture of the nature ingredients.

How
to write a sentence and when to use what,  
where, there.

encourage
children to learn and use the proper communication skills verbally and
nonverbally.

Activity 13

Students are learning about the weather in class.
Identify opportunities for incidental learning that students might encounter
relating to weather.

In 100–150 words, explain how incidental learning could
enhance learning activities

Weather
Observations

-Observe
the Wind:

-Make
a Classroom Rain Gauge

-Charting
and Graphing the Weather

-Daily
weather charts

incidental
learning allow you to follow the student’s lead and teach the skill within the
natural context, enhancing learning activities. This enhances generalization
and increases instruction time within the day. However, incidental teaching
only works if everyone working with the students knows what skills to target
and how to create opportunities for the student to initiate and practice a
skill. The time that students are with paraprofessionals in most of our classes
is not time that can be wasted and the teacher is not the only one who teaches
in our classrooms. Consequently, communicating the targeted skills and ways to
create the opportunities is an important part of the chain

Activity 14

Find the outcomes and objectives for the KLA Personal
Development, Health and Physical education in NSW relating to Stage 4 and 5
students (ie students in Years 7–10).

Objectives

Knowledge,
Understanding and Skills

Students
will:


enhance their sense of self, improve their capacity to manage challenging
circumstances and develop caring and respectful relationships

 • move with confidence and competence, and
contribute to the satisfying and skilled performance of others


take actions to protect, promote and restore individual and community health

 • participate in and promote enjoyable
lifelong physical activity


develop and apply the skills that enable them to adopt and promote healthy and
active lifestyles

Activity 15

Return to the lesson plan you created in Assessment
activity 4. Provide details of how you would modify the lesson plan to cater to
the needs of students with a learning disorder or disability of your choice. Be
specific. There are a number of ways that activities can be modified for
students with physical difficulties. In an art lesson, for example, students
could be asked to create a collage using textures rather than colour. (100–150
words

I
would asked to use nature collage to using a texture rather than a pencil or
painting. The children to use leaves, bark, wooden and stick for craft.
Sometimes they can use nature leaves for weaving or threading art craft.

For
children with physical disabilities, exploring their environment through
movement and play can be challenging. Creating an appropriate setting that
provides access to materials and independence to explore and interact is
essential to prevent learning deficiencies in all developmental domains

Special
Education            

  Ways to Include a Student with Special Needs
in Physical Education

1.
Sensory Integration

The
first two things I always notice about physical 
classes are the loud music and fluorescent lights in the gym.  These are major barriers to students with
some types of neurological differences. 
Many students are also sensitive to bright sunlight outdoors and the
sound of squeaking sneakers on the gym floor, making it difficult for physical
education teachers to find an appropriate location for class.

2
class size:.By working with the school’s social worker, it is possible to
create a positive experience for a student with special needs in a super-sized
class.  Peer-to-peer support groups can
work together in class to ensure full inclusion.  For example, when my son was having trouble
with his gym locker, another student offered to share his locker with him.  When the class separates into teams, 4 or 5
other students make sure that my son understands the rules and his role on the
team.

3.

By
working with the school’s social worker, it is possible to create a positive
experience for a student with special needs in a super-sized class.  Peer-to-peer support groups can work together
in class to ensure full inclusion.  For
example, when my son was having trouble with his gym locker, another student
offered to share his locker with him. 
When the class separates into teams, 4 or 5 other students make sure
that my son understands the rules and his role on the team.

4.
Team Building

Physical
Education is the perfect opportunity for team building exercises.  Instead of competitive games, the class can
focus on creative games that only succeed when a whole team works
together.  “Ants on a log” is my
first-grader’s favorite game.

In
first and second grade, my son’s phys ed teacher excelled at team
building.  Before any game, he explained
that the students had to stay with their team and help their team members reach
the goal – leaving a team member behind was never an option.

5.
Professional Development

Many
teachers of physical education complain about a lack of professional
development opportunities.  Scheduling is
a problem because of coaching duties before and after school, and most
continuing education programs are geared toward teachers of academic subjects.

An
increasing number of teacher certification programs offer classes in Adaptive
Physical Education.  The Adaptive
Physical Education National Standards (APENS) organization promotes teacher
certification in 15 standards for physical education, and its goal is to place
a nationally certified Adapted Physical Educator (CAPE) within every school
district in the USA.  Understanding even
just a few of these standards can go a long way toward inclusion in physical education.

6.
Alternatives

In
some cases, enrollment in a physical education class is not feasible.  But it is still possible to incorporate
physical activity and healthy lifestyle habits into a special education
curriculum:

•take
frequent “movement breaks” by going for a walk, learning to jump rope or
spending 10 minutes on a playground

•develop
a daily 15 minute workout routine

•get
permission to use the school’s weightlifting room – sometimes curiosity about
various machines is enough to jump-start an individualized exercise program

•follow
through on the student’s interest in a specific sport, such as tennis or
gymnastics, and develop a fitness routine around that

•follow
through on a student’s interest in fitness games on Kinect or Wii

It
has been demonstrated again and again that physical education enhances
cognitive function and academic performance. 
Social skills and collaborative teamwork are also benefits of a balanced
physical education program.  So let’s
make physical education inclusive and accessible to all students so that they
can learn the life lessons that can’t be taught in a traditional classroom.

Activity 16

Think about a time when you have learnt something. You
might think about the learning you have done in this course. Reflect on what
you have learnt and how you learnt it. Did you set goals? Did you learn what
you needed to learn? How would you go about learning in the future? What
personal goals could you have set? Write a half to one page reflection on your
learning experience

I as
a teacher need to understand that the process of setting learning goals is a
key part of their learning. Learning goals can help students close the gap
between what they have achieved and what they want to achieve. Effective
personal learning goals:  • are
personally important to the student • can be attained through the student’s own
actions • have a reasonable chance of being achieved in a set time frame (e.g.
a semester) • include a specific plan of action • answer the student’s
questions:  • What do I want to be able
to do?  • How will I succeed in this
goal?  • What do I need to learn?  • Why will this help my learning?  • What actions should I take to help achieve
this goal? • How will my behaviour be different in the future?  It is important that students develop a sense
of personal ownership of their learning goals. A combination of discussion,
sharing, and writing can help students develop a sense of commitment and a
range of goal development skills and strategies

Discussing
with students:  • achievements and
challenges from the previous semester  •
their strengths and areas for improvement, both in and out of class • their
goals for the short and long-term.

In
leading the discussion, teachers can reinforce the need to: • set achievable
and worthwhile goals  • develop a plan of
action for achieving their goals • plan for monitoring and reflecting regularly
on their goals.


Encouraging students to discuss and present their goals as a publication or
presentation which includes: • a review of last semester’s goals – achievements,
challenges and a short explanation for each • learning goals for this semester
– rationale for the goal and length of time for achieving the goal • an action
plan for achieving each goal – actions, possible challenges and how they might
be overcome • an action plan for monitoring goals – with whom will the student
discuss their progress, as well as when and how • reflection process – when and
how.

I
have also learnt that Activities which involve student interaction with content
can include listening to and/or watching a live or recorded talk, engaging with
a written or visual text, engaging with multimedia, or a combination of these.
Typically, students are more likely to retain information presented in these
ways if they are asked to interact with the material in some way, which is why
it is useful to ask or invite questions, or include another activity type after
every 5 or 15 minute ‘chunk’ of information

Activity 17

Unfortunately, there are many shy, unpopular and lonely
children who cannot seem to fit in anywhere. They are isolated while
desperately craving for friendships. Since isolation in early childhood can
have damaging long-term effects such as emotional disturbances, truancy,
vandalism and crime in adolescence and adulthood, it is worthwhile to help
unpopular children develop social skills.

1

There are a number of things that you can do to encourage
lonely or shy students to make friends. Identify at least four

Introducing
‘me’ with extension: After stating their name and listing one thing about them,
have each student shake the hands of each student in the group or circle. In
return, students in the group/circle can respond by saying “I’m (student’s
name),” and give a handshake in return.

Introducing
‘others’: Once students have introduced themselves, divide students in pairs.
Prepare a set of 3 questions for each student to answer and share with their
peer to further allow them to get to know each other.

Introducing
‘others’ with extension:  After students
have had the opportunity to share answers, group 2 or 3 sets of pairs together.
Have each pair introduce their peer to the larger group

Introducing
‘others’ with extension:  After students
have had the opportunity to share answers, group 2 or 3 sets of pairs together.
Have each pair introduce their peer to the larger group.

How would you encourage a
lonely shy student in your classroom? (80 words

Encourage
students to understand and recognize that we are each different and unique in
our own ways. For example, some students are naturally more outgoing than
others and may find it easier to talk to others; whereas, some students are may
have a different experience. This will standardize ‘shyness’ and will further
work to represent it in a more positive light.


Maintain continuous contact with all students, especially those you may
recognize as being ‘shy.’ The worry is that it is easy for ‘shy’ children to
fall behind and remain in the shadows; once they do, it tends to be harder for
them to begin to accept attention when it is given. For example, make a
comment, ask a question, make some small talk, or even pass a smile on a daily
basis to make them feel included.


Ensure all students, especially those who are ‘shy’, have a job in the
classroom. The goal is to try and give them a job that allows them to feel they
are contributing to the classroom and feel connected to other students, while
also encouraging them to interact with other students. Some great classroom
jobs for shier kids include handing out supplies, collecting materials, or
being the line leader.

Activity 18

Students are engaged in quiet work; however, one student
called Hannah is talking when she is not supposed to. How might you direct her
behaviour? (100–150 words

I
would redirect her behaviour:

Change
seating arrangements  


Rearranging the room or furniture

  • Moving the student closer to the
teacher 

 • Move the student away from instigating
peers  


Provide a barrier between students 

 • Eliminating distracting items in the
classroom  


Provide organized places for materials and assignments

When
a consequence is set to occur for a behavior or if the instructor states that a
certain consequence will occur, then it is important to follow through with the
consequence if the particular behavior occurred. This should be done for both
positive consequences (e.g., delivering a reward contingent on appropriate
behavior) and negative consequences (e.g., losing a privilege contingent on
inappropriate behavior). It should also be done to ensure that the student does
not receive the “pay-off” for a behavior (e.g., continue to present the work
demands even though the student’s behavior is occurring to escape).

Increase
student’s belief in self and their own capabilities in various situations by
positive self-prompts. The student can be taught a repertoire of positive
statements, such as “I am capable of doing my work” or “If I study my spelling
words every day, I will get a good grade on my test.” The student is taught to
repeat such statements as frustrations increase in adverse situations.

Activity 19

1

Complete the table. Conduct independent research to find
out the current privacy legislation in each state/ territory

State /territory                        Privacy legislation

Nsw

Queensland

Victoria

South Australia

Tasmania

Western Australia

Northern territory

ACT

Provide a summary of how
the legislation in your state/ territory affects the way you collect and store
students’ personal information. (100 words)

Policy

Schools must:

•have a privacy policy
that is endorsed by the school council

•abide by legislative
privacy requirements in relation to how personal and health information is
collected, used, disclosed and stored

•be reasonable and
fair in how this information is treated, not only for the benefit of staff and
students, but also

to protect the
school’s reputation.

Legislation

This Act applies to
all forms of recorded information or opinion about an individual who can be
identified, including photographs and emails. 
It establishes standards for the collection, handling and disposal of
personal information and places special restrictions on ‘sensitive information’
such as:

•racial or ethnic
origin

•political views

•religious beliefs

•sexual preference

•membership of groups

•criminal record.

Health Records Act
2001

This Act establishes
standards for the collection, handling and disposal of health information
including a person’s

•physical, mental or
psychological health

•disability.

School compliance
strategies

Some strategies
school can implement to ensure compliance with the Privacy Acts include:

•nominating a person
to manage and review the school’s information privacy

•conducting a privacy
audit to determine what information the school collects, how information is
used and with whom information is shared

•developing a privacy
policy, endorsed by the school council, to address a wide range of issues such
as the use of student photographs, electronic devices and confidentiality

•examining data
security arrangements

•ensuring all staff,
including volunteers, are aware and compliant with the school privacy policy

•establishing a
complaints process in liaison with the regional office

•treating all privacy
complaints in the strictest confidence.

Objectives and
principles

The objectives of
privacy laws are to:

•balance the public
interest in the free flow of information while protecting personal and health
information

•empower individuals
to manage, as far as practicable, how personal and health information is used
and disclosed

•promote responsible,
open and accountable information handling practices

•regulate personal
information handling by applying a set of information privacy principles.

Information privacy
principles create rights and obligations about personal and health information;
however these only apply when they do not contravene any other Act of
Parliament.  In most cases there will be
no contradiction as the relevant action falls within one of the exceptions
within the information privacy principles. 

Privacy and
parents/guardians

Providing information
to parents/guardians

To assist decision
making about a student’s needs, schools inform parents/guardians of the
student’s academic progress, behaviour, educational options or special
educational requirements.

Privacy laws do not
restrict this use of the information, as this is the purpose for which it is
collected.

Court orders

Unless a court order
is made under the Family Law Act, both parents of a student have the same
rights to access information about the student

Schools must:

•provide a privacy
notice with the enrolment form explaining to the parents and student why this
information is being collected, what it is used for, where it might be
disclosed and how they can access information held about them

•only use the information
collected during enrolment for the purposes that it was collected for.  Disclosure for an unrelated purpose requires
parental consent or in the case of a secondary student the content of the
parent and student, unless the circumstances fall within one of the above
privacy exemptions

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