The placebo effect can be used to demonstrate the role of cognitive factors in illness
perception. Outline an example that illustrates the concept of a placebo and the
placebo effect. How is the placebo effect explained?
Referencing Use one or more reference sources.
Referencing is required.
Use APA formatting.
Word count 300 words (+10% leeway).
Includes in-text citations, excludes reference list entries.
Material exceeding the word count will not be marked.
TREATMENT DELAY The following case study outlines the delay in seeking treatment by a lung cancer patient, Mr. X. Carefully read the case study and, using Safer, Tharps, Jackson, and Leventhal’s (1979) three stages of treatment delay (see Sarafino & Smith, pp. 241- 242), answer the questions that follow the case study. Mr. X Mr. X is a 45-year-old male who lives in a small rural town, about a 1-hour drive from a major regional centre. He runs his own business, which is doing very well, and he is considering employing someone to help him with the increasing workload. He is a single father of two children, aged 12 and 9. Generally Mr. X reports good health. He is a non-smoker, manages his weight well, exercises 4 times a week and only drinks on social occasions. Mr. X does have mild asthma, that is usually worse in the colder weather, but it is managed well by preventative medication and the asthma management plan Mr. X has with his GP. At present he does not have private health insurance, as he sees no need for it in light of his general good health. In June Mr. X developed a cold, reporting a cough, pain, fever, and sinus congestion. After several days of bed rest he had largely recovered with just the cough persisting – although it was not as bad as when he initially developed his cold. Mr. X assumed that the cough would go away over time. A week later Mr. X developed a wheeze, experienced recurrent shortness of breath and the severity of the cough intensified. To overcome these symptoms he increased the use of his asthma preventative medication to two doses daily and began using his reliever puffer. This strategy had been effective in the past and was part of his asthma management plan. At around the same time Mr. X starting feeling increasingly fatigued and had a reduced appetite. He attributed these symptoms to reduced energy as he had not been exercising regularly due to the respiratory symptoms and that he frequently lost his appetite when he was sick. A few weeks later however he began to have difficulty swallowing and his voice became hoarse. Mr. X assumed that he was developing the flu. At this time, Mr. X became concerned regarding the persistent cough, that other symptoms had started to emerge, and that the asthma treatment was not being as effective as it had in the past. Although he still believed the cough would go away after the seasonal flu period he was beginning to feel that he should talk to his GP to review his asthma management plan. Mr. X was not worried that the cough was anything serious as he was a non-smoker who participated in regular exercise. However, the other symptoms were beginning to cause concern and he kept telling himself that if it were anything serious he would prefer not to know. Discuss the three stages of treatment delay and use the case study to identify relevant examples of each of the different stages of treatment delay. 8: USE OF MEDICAL SERVICES Format Prose. Referencing Use one or more reference sources. Referencing is required. Use APA formatting. Word count 300 words (+10% leeway). Includes in-text citations, excludes reference list entries. Material exceeding the word count will not be marked.
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