TOPIC: Allocate the appropriate funding to build a school expenditure budget
Action research is a reflective process used by school leaders to identify and solve problems on campus. The process involves both individuals and teams that want to improve business processes, operations, and efficiencies. You will complete this Action Inquiry Template identify an issue or problem focus. That is in need of resolution. The subject and nature of this issue or problem should be consistent with the focus for the particular course of study. Once you identified an issue or problem, you enter that focus as a Statement of Problem on the Action Inquiry Template. There are a number of techniques described by Sagor (2000) and used by action researchers to find a focus for their study. Each has inherent pros and cons. Initial identification and description of the problem is critical. This action determines the scope of the study, as well as who is involved and what research is needed.
Statement of the Problem
Instructions: Write 2-3 sentences stating the problem using the guidelines below:
Problem statement deals with the reality of the situation you are investigating. The objective of a problem statement is:
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ To capture the readerÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s attention.
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ To define the situation, problem, or gap in knowledge that the study will address.
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ To persuade your reader to be concerned about the issue Ã¢â‚¬â€œ that it is valuable and worthwhile to
What kinds of topics are worthy of research?
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Expand existing knowledge.
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Contribute to the field.
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Problems and issues of interest to professionals.
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Gaps in the literature.
Questions to be addressed:
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ What is the problem?
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Why is it a problem?
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Why should we be concerned about it?
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ What makes it a topic that is worthy of investigation?
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ What are the ramifications of this situation?
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ What if we do nothing?
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Why do we need more research?
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Why do we need to increase our understanding of the problem?
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Do we need to find ways to solve it?
Using the Sagor (2000) text as a guide, identify and form a Statement of the Problem. Complete the balance of the template through the remainder of the practicum/fieldwork hours.
Relation of the Problem to the Specialization
Instructions: Write 2-3 sentences describing how the problem you are addressing is not only relevant to this course of study but more importantly, the resolution will result in program or process improvement.
Background and Context for the Problem
Instructions: Write 2-3 sentences describing the background and context within which the problem is occurring or the question is being asked. What has happened in the past to create the problem or need today? What research has been done?
Instructions: List the primary research question first followed by any additional research questions the study proposes to answer. Your research questions flow from the problem statement. They provide the basis for planning all other parts of the study Ã¢â‚¬â€œ the research design, instruments, data collection, and data analysis. Research questions have the following characteristics: (a) they state exactly what you want to find out; (b) they are not big, philosophical questions; (c) they can be answered by the data you collect in the study; and (d) they are not yes/no questions.
Importance or Significance of the Study
Instructions: In two or three sentences, describe the significance of the study. Why should it be done? What is the value of the study? Why is it important? To whom is it important? Ensure that your reader will not react to your topic with Ã¢â‚¬Å“So what?Ã¢â‚¬Â
Topics in the Literature Review
Instructions: Present a content outline of the literature review here. What research provides a foundation for this study? Briefly identify the major themes and subthemes for which you will present the literature in support of this proposed study. Provide a brief description for each theme and subtheme to show how it relates to the problem being studied. Make sure that part of the outline includes the theoretical framework that will form the foundation for the study? (Typically, you will have at least 3-4 major themes outside of the theoretical framework.)
Instructions: How do you plan to conduct this study? State whether you will use quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods research, and then describe the research design in one or two sentences. Focus on the questions/hypotheses you posed earlier.
Specific research designs are determined primarily by two factors:(a) what the research questions require; and (b) what is feasible given the resources or conditions at hand.
Consider what kind of data will answer the research question/hypothesis: (a) qualitative data sources can include field notes from observations, research journals, and interview; (b) quantitative data sources could include test scores, frequency counts, percentages, and/or descriptive statistics; (c) both qualitative and quantitative data.
Consider what instruments will help you collect this data. Three categories of research design:
Experimental research design: (a) used to test hypotheses regarding cause and effect, (b) making causal inferences requires a high degree of experimental control, and (c) true experimental design versus quasi-experimental designs.
Correlational research design: (a) examines how variables are related to one another and (b) do not reveal whether one variable causes the other.
Descriptive research design depicts conditions as they exist in a particular setting.
All designs may use qualitative data sources, quantitative sources, or both.
IMPORTANT: Make sure that the essential elements of the preproposal are in alignment. The problem statement, research questions, and method must fit together.
Instructions: Briefly describe how you will collect data to answer the research questions: How will the data be collected? By whom? From whom? When? Where? Briefly describe the instrumentation for a quantitative study and sources of data for a qualitative study. Quantitative data sources typically include test scores, survey responses, and observations of behavior. Qualitative data sources typically include field notes from observations, research journals, and interviews. Who will develop the instruments? If using someone elseÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s instrument, what steps will be followed to obtain approval? If you are developing the instrument, which will be used: pilot study or panel of expert?. Provide a rationale for the choice. Briefly describe the data collection process that you plan to use. What specific requirements does the site for the data collection have for gaining approval to conduct a study using its participants? How will these requirements be met?
IMPORTANT: You are not allowed to conduct your study in your place of employment alone. So, keep this in mind when developing this area.
Instructions: Describe how you will analyze the data. Indicate the type(s) of statistical analysis for quantitative data and briefly describe the data analysis strategy for qualitative data. Organize the data analysis process around the research question or hypothesis.
Instructions: List all resources that you cited in this document.
Learner Questions and Concerns
Instruction: List any questions or concerns you wish to discuss with your
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