week 11 resp ethics
1. Honestly i do not believe that the physician should be legally restricted from implanting at all. The amount of babies a woman has does not depend on the physician but the individual. If the woman is physically unable to have a certain amount then it is the right of the physician to advice medically but until then i believe it is up to the woman, once she can financially cater for her children. When it comes to fertilized eggs that are not implanted into a woman’s woman, i do not think that they should be thrown away but come to an agreement with the individuals who provided them to give them a chance to women who are unable to produce any of their own. This is a more reasonable approach than just throwing them away but it has to be under legal consent. If they individuals do not agree to this then i do not think there is much of a choice but to throw them away.
2. In 2014, Pozgar found that there are several ethical questions concerning the entire life span, from the right to be born to the right to die. With regard to the proposed question, it is highlighted that a single woman with several children recently underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and gave birth to octuplets, eight (8) live babies. In addition, she stated that she did this intentionally as she felt it was not right or ethical to throw away the frozen fertilized eggs. To be specific, she indicated that they should be given a chance at life. Based on advance research, I perceive that this incidence stems from the case of Nadya Suleman which took place on January 26, 2009. With that being said, I believe that physicians should be legally restricted from implanting more than a certain number (such as three) of fertilized eggs as part of this procedure especially if parent(s) are not financially stable. Mayo Clinic (2019) found that, “In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complicated series of procedures used to aid with fertility or prevent genetic problems and help with the conception of a child.” During IVF, mature eggs are retrieved from ovaries and fertilized by sperm in a lab. Afterwards, the fertilized egg(s) are transferred to a uterus which occurred in the octuplets mom’s case. The chances of having a healthy baby using IVF is contingent on many factors such as age and the case of infertility. It should be restricted because a pregnancy with multiple fetuses carries a higher risk of early labor and low birth weight than pregnancy with a single fetus does. The possibilities of miscarriages can also occur as well as the financial, physical and emotional aspects of stress. Additionally, in cases where the mother is single, I see no reason for implanting more than three (3) fertilized eggs because full support is a requirement for one (1) baby, muchless eight (8) all at once. In Suleman’s case, it is noted that she already had children from the IVF procedure and as a single mother, it was not ethical for the physician to have added more than three (3) fertilized eggs. According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine’s (ASRM), women under the age of thirty-five (35) are recommended one to two embryos which means that the physician in Suleman’s case violated the standards. I believe that fertilized eggs that are not implanted into a woman’s womb should remain frozen as it can be stored for future use for several years. Although not all embryos will survive the freezing process, most will. The fertilized eggs can also be donated to a couple who cannot have children naturally or to a research facility.
3. In my opinion, I believe that physicians shouldn’t be restricted from implanting more than 3 fertilized eggs as as part of the procedure. However, the physician should consider the risks and the patients age, health, mental state, likelihood to achieve and successful implantation. The implantation rates can be increased by genetically screening the embryos before transfer or by transferring the embryos into a uterine environment that has not been subjected to ovarian stimulation, such as with frozen embryos, oocyte donation cycles, or gestational carrier cycles. Under ideal conditions, some embryo transfers can have implantation rates of 70-80% or even greater. The greatest risk of embryo transfer is the chance of multiple pregnancies. This occurs when multiple separate embryos attach to the uterus. This may increase the risk of stillbirth and children born with disabilities, and is more common in pregnancies due to IVF than natural conception.The embryo should remain frozen if not used by the patient. Embryo freezing is relatively safe and often leads to a successful pregnancy and delivery. Another option is to have the embryos thawed and disposed of by the clinic. This is usually done in the embryo lab of the fertility clinic or at a cryobank where they are stored. The clinic may be able to give the thawed embryos over to the patient for burial, though legal laws regarding the disposal of biological tissue may complicate this. Whether the unused embryos are disposed of at the clinic or given over to the patient for burial, they may hold a ceremony or self-created ritual to mark the passing of the embryos.
4. I do understand that the frozen eggs should be given a chance at life but in her situation, she already had children and eight more is too much for just a woman. I think doctors should restricted the amount of eggs especially when women already have children. On the other hand, fertilized eggs that are not implanted into woman’s womb should keep them frozen because we don’t know what will happen in the future and in case her decision, however, if it’s not necessary to use them I think they should be thrown it away because they not always are 100% percent satisfactory depending on the age the egg was fertilized.
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