Forensic Dependencies and Barriers to Justice.
150 words agree or disagree
Future Criminal Intelligence Environment: It might seem that the criminal environment has not changed, as both personal and property crimes are the part of everyday routine of law enforcement. At the same time, technological development has provided new possibilities for criminals by allowing them to steal and commit fraud at bigger scale. Future criminal intelligence environment will revolve around technologies, virtual space, and ICT. According to the current trends, high-tech crimes are growing exponentially with the inability of law enforcement to prevent or address them at once (Zavrsnik, 2010). According to the analysis of cybercrime worldwide, investigation of cybercrime has multiple barriers, including the lack of correspondence among different international agencies concerning the legal prosecution, limited number of skilled talent in law enforcement, and absence of effective methods that would allow to find and prosecute offenders (Brown, 2015). As a result, the criminals continue committing identity thefts, spreading dangerous viruses (e.g. ransomware), phishing, and hacking. Since the technologies will continue to improve and update, it is more likely that the criminals will alter their tactics. The main goal of the modern law enforcement is to prepare for the future tendencies by investing in cybercrime department, training talent, and researching the newest trends in cybercrime. Since this type of crime threatens the individual citizens as well as the entire countries, the law enforcement agencies must ensure that the organized crime does not feel comfortable in the virtual space, which can be observed today.
Intelligence Analytics: Tools and techniques in intelligence analysis might vary across the analysts, systems, and countries. Since today analysts deal with the intelligence presented in a variety of forms, including the digital one, the methods of analysis can be different. For example, basic analytical process usually includes the following steps: collect and sift all available data, construct a preliminary diagram, evaluate new information in light of old data, collect further information, develop preliminary inferences, develop conclusions, assemble a report (United Nations, 2011). This structure can vary according to the available intelligence, protocol of assembling the data, and the scheme used by a specific agency. Several basic techniques of data analysis include event charting, link, flow, and telephone analyses (Berlusconi et al., 2016). These methods are used according to the specific events, goals, and available data. Several software are used today to analyze intelligence and information, including Law Enforcement Specific GIS, RMC and CAD information exchange. Analysis is more effective if the officers have a wide variety of data. For example, today, the agencies can use social media analysis as one of the effective tools in data mining. For instance, a research exploring intelligence officers’ perception of social media analysis revealed that this approach became more effective over the years due to the oversharing (Burcher & Whelan, 2017). As a result, modern officers can analyze information from different sources.
Usable Intelligence: Not all information is usable intelligence for the analysts. It is important to ensure that the sources of information are credible and valid, the data is valuable to the case, and it is verifiable. The usability of intelligence is affected by the method and quality of analysis. Specifically, the analyst should structure the information and connect it to the case to make it understandable and logically structured. In some cases, analysts should work with limited information, unverifiable sources, and lack of clarity in data. In this case, intelligence must be marked as questionable. Analysis should be transform raw data into usable intelligence by effective analysis and careful examination of sources of data.
Berlusconi, G., Calderoni, F., Parolini, N., Verani, M., & Piccardi, C. (2016). Link Prediction in Criminal Networks: A Tool for Criminal Intelligence Analysis. PLoS One, 11(4): e0154244.
Brown, C. S. (2015). Investigating and Prosecuting Cyber Crime: Forensic Dependencies and Barriers to Justice. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 9(1), 55-119.
Burcher, M. & Whelan, C. (2017). Social network analysis as a tool for criminal intelligence: Understanding its potential from the perspectives of intelligence analysts. Trends in Organized Crime, 21(1), 1-17.
United Nations. (2011). Criminal Intelligence Manual for Analysts. New York, NY: UN.
Zavrsnik, A. (2010). Towards an Overregulated Cyberspace. Masaryk University Journal of Law & Technology, 4(2), 173-190.
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