[Recommended]Who are these public servants?

Question – 1   In chapter1, the focus was on targeting five communities that make up the core field for ICT-enabled policy-making.  Name those five…

Question – 1
 
In chapter1, the focus was on targeting five communities that make up the core field for ICT-enabled policy-making.  Name those five communities involved, and briefly explain to support your answer?
 
Q1 – Who are these five communities? 
 

identify and name the five communities,
provide a short narrative for each,
provide substantive input to three other colleague’s response to the DF questions,
DON’T COPY and PASTE responses into the DF from textbooks and any other digital Internet sources,
2.5 points will be earned for correct responses

 
Question-2
 
 
 
After reading through the Chapters, its reasonable to state that, Koliba and Zia (2015) observed that advancements in high-speed computing, digitization of data and improved collaboration across informatics project platforms create the need for quality simulation modeling education for two types of public servants.
 
Q1 – Who are these public servants? 
 

identify and name these two types of public servants,
provide a short narrative of why it’s important for these servants to receive this education,
provide substantive input to three other colleague’s response to the DF questions,
DON’T COPY and PASTE responses into the DF from textbooks and any other digital Internet sources,
1.25 points will be earned for correct responses

 
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According to Chalmers et al. (1995, p. 173), validation of a simulation against empirical data is not about comparing “the real world” and the simulation output; but it is a comparison of what is observed as the real world with what is observed as the output.  In this scenario, both are constructions of observers and their views concerning relevant agents and their attributes (Chalmers et al., 1995). Constructing reality and simulation are just two-way of an observer seeing the world. The issue of objective, formation is not normally considered by computer scientists relying on the standard view: data is “organized” by a human programmer who appropriately fits them into the chosenrepresentational structure. In most cases, researchers apply their prior knowledge of the nature of the problem to hand-code a representation of the data into a near-optimal form.
 
Q2 – In consideration of the constructionist’s views regarding the quality of social simulation as an example of research-based and policy modeling approach, what happens when the possibility of validating a simulation by comparing it with empirical data from the “real world” is questioned? 
 

provide a short and clear narrative with an explanation of what happens,
provide substantive input to three other colleague’s response to the DF questions,
DON’T COPY and PASTE responses into the DF from textbooks and any other digital Internet sources,
1.25 points will be earned for correct responses

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