[Solution]Write a Business Style Report

CASE STUDY TWO                                                                                      [45 marks] Sid and Nancy run three salad bars in East Anglia, one in Norwich, one in Thetford, and one in Cambridge.…

CASE STUDY TWO                                                                                      [45 marks]

Sid and Nancy run three salad bars in East Anglia, one in Norwich, one in Thetford, and one in Cambridge. At present, the manager at each salad bar must purchase stock in the smallest quantities possible to keep the costs associated with holding stock to a minimum, and of course to ensure that key ingredients are always the freshest possible. This takes up about 40% of each salad bar managers’ time. Sid and Nancy would like to invest in a new information system (IS) that would first centralise (for the head office in Norwich where Sid and Nancy are located) the customer numbers (as daily peak and trough customer flows), second track menu choices linked to available stock, and third, ensure that the IS can automatically let each salad bar manager know when re-orders are being placed and delivered. These requirements must be available in real-time. The reason for the purchase (or development) of the new IS is to free up time for each manager so that they can visit their suppliers more regularly to check the quality of the ingredients ordered, and to plan more efficiently staff allocation to match trough and peak time customer flow. . At present, each salad bar manager uses a very old IS that keeps track of stock for each salad bar. Although the current IS can produce reports on an ad-hoc basis when needed by head office, reports must be requested and emailed as a spreadsheet that is uploaded and processed. Also, the current IS does not include the ability to help match staffing levels with peak and trough customer flows. Additionally, Sid and Nancy are planning to open two new salad bars, one in Ely and the other in Ipswich. At the moment, Sid and Nancy’s view is that head office will be able to generate data from the salad bars in Norwich, Thetford and Cambridge for twelve months after the deployment of the new IS and combine it with purchased marketing data for Ely and Ipswich from a third-party. According to Sid and Nancy, this will help to decide the size, location, and staffing levels of the new salad bars. Although Sid and Nancy are unclear about what data and Business Intelligence (BI) processes are appropriate for their business.

Your task is to answer questions below.

You are to write a business style report that will help Sid and Nancy understand how to make use of BI and the data they have:

Overview how to contextualise the BI infrastructure for Sid and Nancy to help them make the correct decisions for the new salad bars in Ely and Ipswich. For the BI infrastructure you need to consider types of data (operational, historical etc.), how you would extract, transform and load the data, and how you would provide the data in a data mart. [10 marks]

Explain how to manage the data resources that Sid and Nancy might have access to. For example, the old IS does have some useable data so maybe this data could be used with the data provided by the new IS? Would they need to consider data cleansing? How would the data be structured?

[25 marks]

In the report compile a diagram (and add a short narrative explanation) that depicts a suitable decision-making process for Sid and Nancy’s needs which considers the deployment of the new IS.                                                                 [10 marks]

Notes from lectures

Big data in a nutshell

Big data: Describes all the methods and techniques for extracting “value” from data that are characterized by

Volume: How big the dataset is (e.g. in terms of size, in terms of observations etc)

Variety: If the data are coming in various formats (e.g. company financial reports in file format, sales figures etc in tabular format etc.)

Velocity: The time dimension that the data describe (e.g. readings for a particular time and date).

Veracity: The trustworthiness or the confidence on the accuracy that we have on this measurement (e.g., temperature)

The term “big” is not uniform. You might have small datasets with high variety etc.

Elements of the BI infrastructure

Business intelligence infrastructureToday includes an array of tools for separate systems, and big dataContemporary tools:Data warehousesData martsHadoopIn-memory computingAnalytical platforms

Data Warehousing and Data Marts

Data warehouse:Stores current and historical data from many core operational transaction systemsConsolidates and standardizes information for use across enterprise, but data cannot be alteredProvides analysis and reporting toolsData marts:Subset of data warehouseSummarized or focused portion of data for use by specific population of usersTypically focuses on single subject or line of business

CONTEMPORARY BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE INFRASTRUCTURE

A contemporary business intelligence infrastructure features capabilities and tools to manage and

analyze large quantities and different types of data from multiple sources. Easy-to-use query and

reporting tools for casual business users and more sophisticated analytical toolsets for power users

are included.

Tools for Improving Business Performance and Decision Making

HadoopEnables distributed parallel processing of big data across inexpensive computersKey servicesHadoop Distributed File System (HDFS): data storageMapReduce: breaks data into clusters for workHbase: NoSQL databaseUsed by Facebook, Yahoo, AmazonIn-memory computingUsed in big data analysisUses computers main memory (RAM) for data storage to avoid delays in retrieving data from disk storageCan reduce hours/days of processing to secondsRequires optimized hardwareAnalytic platformsHigh-speed platforms using both relational and non-relational tools optimized for large datasets

Tools for Improving Business Performance and Decision Making

Managing Data Resources

Ensuring data qualityMore than 25 percent of critical data in Fortune 1000 company databases are inaccurate or incompleteRedundant dataInconsistent dataFaulty inputBefore new database in place, need to:Identify and correct faulty dataEstablish better routines for editing data once database in operationData quality audit:Structured survey of the accuracy and level of completeness of the data in an information systemSurvey samples from data files, orSurvey end users for perceptions of qualityData cleansingSoftware to detect and correct data that are incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or redundantEnforces consistency among different sets of data from separate information systems

Decision Making and Information Systems

Business value of improved decision makingImproving hundreds of thousands of “small” decisions adds up to large annual value for the businessTypes of decisions:Unstructured: Decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insight to solve problemStructured: Repetitive and routine; involve definite procedure for handling so they do not have to be treated each time as newSemistructured: Only part of problem has clear-cut answer provided by accepted procedure

The 4 stages of the decision making processIntelligenceDiscovering, identifying, and understanding the problems occurring in the organizationDesignIdentifying and exploring solutions to the problemChoiceChoosing among solution alternativesImplementationMaking chosen alternative work and continuing to monitor how well solution is working

Information systems can only assist in some of the roles played by managersClassical model of management: 5 functionsPlanning, organizing, coordinating, deciding, and controllingMore contemporary behavioral modelsActual behavior of managers appears to be less systematic, more informal, less reflective, more reactive, and less well organized than in classical model

Three main reasons why investments in information technology do not always produce positive results

Information qualityHigh-quality decisions require high-quality informationManagement filtersManagers have selective attention and have variety of biases that reject information that does not conform to prior conceptionsOrganizational inertia and politicsStrong forces within organizations resist making decisions calling for major change

Business Intelligence in the Enterprise

Six elements in the business intelligence environmentData from the business environmentBusiness intelligence infrastructureBusiness analytics toolsetManagerial users and methodsDelivery platform – MIS, DSS, ESSUser interface

Intellegence

The 4 stages of the decision making processIntelligenceDiscovering, identifying, and understanding the problems occurring in the organizationDesignIdentifying and exploring solutions to the problemChoiceChoosing among solution alternativesImplementationMaking chosen alternative work and continuing to monitor how well solution is working

Its example diagram for part C. Roughly worth 200 words.
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