“Atmospheric ions are electrically charged particles which occur naturally in the
atmosphere. They form in the upper atmospheric layers mainly because of the action
of ultraviolet radiation from the sun, as well as in lower atmospheric layers as a result
of radioactive radiation and cosmic rays. These cause ionisation of neutral molecules
or atoms. As a result, ions are formed. These ions almost instantaneously combine
to form molecules with ionic bonds.”
The extract mentions ‘ions’. Explain what these are in terms of their electronic
structure, and how this is different from an atom.
The extract mentions ‘ionic bonds’. Explain what these are, and how they form in
terms of electron structure.
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