This study will look into the theoretical and conceptual tenets of youth and disability studies to understand the career aspirations of youth with disabilities in Dar es Salaam as they transition to adulthood. The aim is pursued through exploring the lived experiences of youth with disabilities within the education setting, family life, and in the overall community. The key research question in relation to these themes is;
How do the lived experiences (at home, in school, and in the community) shape the career aspirations of youth with physical disabilities in the urban setting of Dar-es-salaam as they transition to adulthood?
Key concepts and approaches
1.1. Introduction: Growing body of research and interest in disability but very little in understanding the lives of youth with disabilities in the global south. critically assess the wider social sciences and geographical literature focusing on youth (Section 1.2) and disability (Section 1.3) while highlighting the gaps in research in the global south.
1.2. Youth studies :The purpose of this section is to examine how the social sciences, and geography in particular, have developed, adopted, contributed to, and critiqued the development of different conceptualisations of youth and how they have been used in different contexts– Mention how much of this work has been conducted by researchers from the Global North in the fields of sociology, psychology, and cultural studies, each of which offer different frameworks for studying youth.
1.2.1. Define Youth : Look at when youth became a special category, how youth is viewed differently over time and space – Global South and western views of youth . Mention how this stage has now become longer and why. Mention specificities of Youth definitions in the African context and particularly in Tanzania. llustrate how age-bound categories of defining youth have been criticised dismiss the varying meanings and experiences of age that are linked to socio-cultural and socio-spatial factor……inflexible categorisations can bring about an understanding of youth that is delimited ‘ in between adulthood and childhood diminishes the idea of youth as a stage in its own right…..etc . Speak of youth agency ….contesting the assumed homogeneity of definitions of childhood and youth by emphasizing the importance of space and spatio-temporal variations in the use and meanings of these terms – Mention difference in of western and southern contexts
social and cultural variables such as gender, religion, class, responsibility,expectations, race, and ethnicity need to be considered when defining terms such as child, youth, and adult. ….. Give examples of African contexts of how a person may be considered a youth even though they may be as old as 40 if they have not gone through certain cultual rights and passages such as marriage etc.
How do all these definitions affect a young person with a disability? What is the age of youth in Tanzania…
1.2.2. Youth Transitions and Aspirations
Discuss concepts of Youth transitions in different contexts. Discuss aspiration building for young people. What shapes these aspirations as youth transition? What do transitions and aspirations look like for the the global south? Differences with west? young people experience a variety of transitions during their lives that should be considered as interacting with rather than isolated from each other ….Mention – Biographical and life-course perspectives, ‘critical moments’ , ‘vital conjunctures’ , ‘fateful moments’….If there are spefic transitions youth need to undergo that shape their careers, do these happen the same way for a young person with a dissability? Why not?
1.2.3 Youth cultural studies
In addition to transitions, the other long-standing tradition in studying young people isthat of ‘youth culture’ ……. What is it? How do rites of passage and cultural practices that mark the transitions to adult status? In contrast to much of the work on youth transitions, the cultural approach draws largely on small-scale ethnographic studies …….subculture ……waht is it? give ethnographic examples—- Examples of youth cultures in Tanzania? – Are the youth with disability included? Why not?
1.3. Dissability studies :
Like youth, disability is a highly contested and complex concept that varies greatly across different contexts and disciplines, generating a wide range of theories, approaches, and concepts relevant to studying persons with disabilities. Illustrate and explain…. Is the way dissability understood in the west the same as understood in the glodal south?
Whta historical journey has the definition of disability undergone? What brought about these changes?
1.3.1: Medical/individual model of disability
1.3.2: Social model of disability
1.3.3: Embodied approaches to disability
1.3.4 Disability, development, and the Global South : discourses have been informed largely by Anglophone and Western-centric,research……Much of disability in the global south…Mostly a medical issue….
1.3.5 : The capabilities approach, disability and poverty
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